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std::upper_bound

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Defined in header <algorithm>
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template< class ForwardIt, class T >
ForwardIt upper_bound( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value );
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template< class ForwardIt, class T, class Compare >
ForwardIt upper_bound( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value, Compare comp );
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Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the range [first, last) that is greater than value. The first version uses operator< to compare the elements, the second version uses the given comparison function comp.

Contents

Parameters

first, last - the range of elements to examine
value - value to compare the elements to
comp - comparison function object (i.e. an object that satisfies the requirements of Compare) which returns ​true if the first argument is less than the second.

The signature of the comparison function should be equivalent to the following:

 bool cmp(const Type1 &a, const Type2 &b);

The signature does not need to have const &, but the function object must not modify the objects passed to it.
The type Type1 must be such that an object of type T can be implicitly converted to Type1. The type Type2 must be such that an object of type ForwardIt can be dereferenced and then implicitly converted to Type2. ​

Type requirements
-
ForwardIt must meet the requirements of ForwardIterator.

Return value

iterator pointing to the first element that is greater than value, or last if no such element is found.

Possible implementation

First version
template<class ForwardIt, class T>
ForwardIt upper_bound(ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last,
                            const T& value)
{
    ForwardIt it;
    std::iterator_traits<ForwardIt>::distance_type count, step;
    count = std::distance(first,last);
 
    while (count > 0) {
        it = first; 
        step = count / 2; 
        std::advance(it, step);
        if (!(value < *it)) {
            first = ++it;
            count -= step + 1;
        } else count = step;
    }
    return first;
}
Second version
template<class ForwardIt, class T, class Compare>
ForwardIt upper_bound(ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last,
                            const T& value, Compare comp)
{
    ForwardIt it;
    std::iterator_traits<ForwardIt>::distance_type count, step;
    count = std::distance(first,last);
 
    while (count > 0) {
        it = first; 
        step = count / 2;
        std::advance(it, step);
        if (!comp(value, *it)),
            first = ++it;
            count -= step + 1
        } else count = step;
    }
    return first;
}

Example

#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <iterator>
#include <vector>
 
int main()
{
    std::vector<int> data = { 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6 };
 
    auto lower = std::lower_bound(data.begin(), data.end(), 4);
    auto upper = std::upper_bound(data.begin(), data.end(), 4);
 
    std::copy(lower, upper, std::ostream_iterator<int>(std::cout, " "));
}

Output:

4 4 4

Complexity

logarithmic in the distance between first and last

See also

Template:cpp/algorithm/dcl list equal rangeTemplate:cpp/algorithm/dcl list lower bound