Namespaces
Variants
Views
Actions

constexpr specifier (since C++11)

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | language
Revision as of 07:40, 15 September 2013 by Cubbi (Talk | contribs)

 
 
C++ language
General topics
Flow control
Conditional execution statements
Iteration statements
Jump statements
Functions
function declaration
lambda function declaration
function template
inline specifier
exception specifications (deprecated)
noexcept specifier (C++11)
Exceptions
Namespaces
Types
decltype specifier (C++11)
Specifiers
cv specifiers
storage duration specifiers
constexpr specifier (C++11)
auto specifier (C++11)
alignas specifier (C++11)
Initialization
Literals
Expressions
alternative representations
Utilities
Types
typedef declaration
type alias declaration (C++11)
attributes (C++11)
Casts
implicit conversions
const_cast conversion
static_cast conversion
dynamic_cast conversion
reinterpret_cast conversion
C-style and functional cast
Memory allocation
Classes
Class-specific function properties
Special member functions
Templates
class template
function template
template specialization
parameter packs (C++11)
Miscellaneous
Inline assembly
 
  • constexpr - specifies that the value of a variable or function can be computed at compile time

Explanation

The constexpr specifier declares that it is possible to evaluate the value of the function or variable at compile time. Such variables and functions can then be used where only compile time constant expressions are allowed. A constexpr specifier used in an object declaration implies const.

A constexpr variable must satisfy the following requirements:

  • it must be immediately constructed or assigned a value.
  • the constructor parameters or the value to be assigned must contain only literal values, constexpr variables and functions.
  • the constructor used to construct the object (either implicit or explicit) must satisfy the requirements of constexpr constructor. In the case of explicit constructor, it must have constexpr specified.

A constexpr function must satisfy the following requirements:

  • it must not be virtual
  • its return type must be LiteralType
  • each of its parameters must be literal type
  • the function body must be either deleted or defaulted or contain only the following:
  • null statements
  • static_assert declarations
  • typedef declarations and alias declarations that do not define classes or enumerations
  • using declarations
  • using directives
  • exactly one return statement that contains only literal values, constexpr variables and functions.

A constexpr constructor must satisfy the following requirements:

  • each of its parameters must be literal type
  • the class must have no virtual base classes
  • the constructor body must be either deleted or defaulted or contain only the following:
  • null statements
  • static_assert declarations
  • typedef declarations and alias declarations that do not define classes or enumerations
  • using declarations
  • using directives
  • the constructor must not have a function-try block
  • every base class and every non-static member must be initialized, either in the constructors initialization list or by a member brace-or-equal initializer. In addition, every constructor involved must be a constexpr constructor and every clause of every brace-or-equal initializer must be a constant expression
  • every implicit conversion involved must be a constant expression

Keywords

constexpr

Example

Definition of a constexpr function which computes factorials and a literal type that extends string literals:

#include <iostream>
#include <stdexcept>
 
// constexpr functions use recursion rather than iteration
constexpr int factorial(int n)
{
    return n <= 1 ? 1 : (n * factorial(n-1));
}
 
// literal class
class conststr {
    const char * p;
    std::size_t sz;
 public:
    template<std::size_t N>
    constexpr conststr(const char(&a)[N]) : p(a), sz(N-1) {}
    // constexpr functions signal errors by throwing exceptions from operator ?:
    constexpr char operator[](std::size_t n) const {
        return n < sz ? p[n] : throw std::out_of_range("");
    }
    constexpr std::size_t size() const { return sz; }
};
 
constexpr std::size_t countlower(conststr s, std::size_t n = 0,
                                             std::size_t c = 0) {
    return n == s.size() ? c :
           s[n] >= 'a' && s[n] <= 'z' ? countlower(s, n+1, c+1) :
           countlower(s, n+1, c);
}
 
// output function that requires a compile-time constant, for testing
template<int n> struct constN {
    constN() { std::cout << n << '\n'; }
};
 
int main()
{
    std::cout << "4! = " ;
    constN<factorial(4)> out1; // computed at compile time
 
    volatile int k = 8; // disallow optimization using volatile
    std::cout << k << "! = " << factorial(k) << '\n'; // computed at run time
 
    std::cout << "Number of lowercase letters in \"Hello, world!\" is ";
    constN<countlower("Hello, world!")> out2; // implicitly converted to conststr
}

Output:

4! = 24
8! = 40320
Number of lowercase letters in "Hello, world!" is 9