< cpp‎ | locale‎ | wstring convert
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Defined in header <locale>

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byte_string to_bytes( Elem wchar );

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byte_string to_bytes( const Elem* wptr );

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byte_string to_bytes( const wide_string& wstr );

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byte_string to_bytes( const Elem* first, const Elem* last);

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Performs wide to multibyte conversion, using the codecvt facet supplied at construction.

1) Converts wchar as if it was a string of length 1, to byte_string

2) Converts the null-terminated wide character sequence beginning at the wide character pointed to by wptr, to byte_string

3) Converts the wide string str to byte_string.

4) Converts the wide character sequence [first, last) to byte_string

In all cases, the conversion begins in initial shift state, unless non-initial starting state was provided to this wstring_convert constructor. The number of characters converted and the final value of the conversion state are remembered and can be accessed with Template:rlpf and Template:rlpf


Return value

A byte_string object containing the results of the wide to multibyte conversion. If the conversion failed and there was a user-supplied byte-error string provided to the constructor of this wstring_convert, returns that byte-error string.


If this wstring_convert object was constructed without a user-supplied byte-error string, throws std::range_error on conversion failure.


#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <locale>
#include <codecvt>
#include <iomanip>
// utility function for output
void hex_print(const std::string& s)
    std::cout << std::hex << std::setfill('0');
    for(unsigned char c : s)
        std::cout << std::setw(2) << static_cast<int>(c) << ' ';
    std::cout << std::dec << '\n';
int main()
    // wide character data
    std::wstring wstr =  L"z\u00df\u6c34\U0001d10b"; // or L"zß水𝄋"
    // wide to UTF-8
    std::wstring_convert<std::codecvt_utf8<wchar_t>> conv1;
    std::string u8str = conv1.to_bytes(wstr);
    std::cout << "UTF-8 conversion produced " << u8str.size() << " bytes:\n";
    // wide to UTF-16le
    std::wstring_convert<std::codecvt_utf16<wchar_t, 0x10ffff, std::little_endian>> conv2;
    std::string u16str = conv2.to_bytes(wstr);
    std::cout << "UTF-16le conversion produced " << u16str.size() << " bytes:\n";


UTF-8 conversion produced 10 bytes:
7a c3 9f e6 b0 b4 f0 9d 84 8b 
UTF-16le conversion produced 10 bytes:
7a 00 df 00 34 6c 34 d8 0b dd

See also

Template:cpp/locale/wstring convert/dcl list from bytesTemplate:cpp/string/multibyte/dcl list wcsrtombsTemplate:cpp/locale/codecvt/dcl list do out