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std::log1p

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Defined in header <cmath>
float       log1p( float arg );
(1) (since C++11)
double      log1p( double arg );
(2) (since C++11)
long double log1p( long double arg );
(3) (since C++11)
double      log1p( Integral arg );
(4) (since C++11)
1-3) Computes the natural (base e) logarithm of 1+arg. This function is more precise than the expression std::log(1+arg) if arg is close to zero.
4) A set of overloads or a function template accepting an argument of any integral type. Equivalent to 2) (the argument is cast to double).

Contents

[edit] Parameters

arg - value of floating-point or Integral type

[edit] Return value

If no errors occur ln(1+arg) is returned.

If a domain error occurs, an implementation-defined value is returned (NaN where supported)

If a pole error occurs, -HUGE_VAL, -HUGE_VALF, or -HUGE_VALL is returned.

If a range error occurs due to underflow, the correct result (after rounding) is returned.

[edit] Error handling

Errors are reported as specified in math_errhandling

Domain error occurs if arg is less than -1.

Pole error may occur if arg is -1.

If the implementation supports IEEE floating-point arithmetic (IEC 60559),

  • If the argument is ±0, it is returned unmodified
  • If the argument is -1, -∞ is returned and FE_DIVBYZERO is raised.
  • If the argument is less than -1, NaN is returned and FE_INVALID is raised.
  • If the argument is +∞, +∞ is returned
  • If the argument is NaN, NaN is returned

[edit] Notes

The functions std::expm1 and std::log1p are useful for financial calculations, for example, when calculating small daily interest rates: (1+x)n
-1
can be expressed as std::expm1(n * std::log1p(x)). These functions also simplify writing accurate inverse hyperbolic functions.

[edit] Example

#include <iostream>
#include <cfenv>
#include <cmath>
#include <cerrno>
#include <cstring>
#pragma STDC FENV_ACCESS ON
int main()
{
    std::cout << "log1p(0) = " << log1p(0) << '\n'
              << "Interest earned in 2 days on on $100, compounded daily at 1%\n"
              << " on a 30/360 calendar = "
              << 100*expm1(2*log1p(0.01/360)) << '\n'
              << "log(1+1e-16) = " << std::log(1+1e-16)
              << " log1p(1e-16) = " << std::log1p(1e-16) << '\n';
    // special values
    std::cout << "log1p(-0) = " << std::log1p(-0.0) << '\n'
              << "log1p(+Inf) = " << std::log1p(INFINITY) << '\n';
    // error handling
    errno=0; std::feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT);
    std::cout << "log1p(-1) = " << std::log1p(-1) << '\n';
    if(errno == ERANGE)
        std::cout << "    errno == ERANGE: " << std::strerror(errno) << '\n';
    if(std::fetestexcept(FE_DIVBYZERO))
        std::cout << "    FE_DIVBYZERO raised\n";
}

Possible output:

log1p(0) = 0
Interest earned in 2 days on on $100, compounded daily at 1%
 on a 30/360 calendar = 0.00555563
log(1+1e-16) = 0 log1p(1e-16) = 1e-16
log1p(-0) = -0
log1p(+Inf) = inf
log1p(-1) = -inf
    errno == ERANGE: Result too large
    FE_DIVBYZERO raised


[edit] See also

computes natural (base e) logarithm (to base e) (ln(x))
(function) [edit]
computes common (base 10) logarithm (log10(x))
(function) [edit]
(C++11)
base 2 logarithm of the given number (log2(x))
(function) [edit]
(C++11)
returns e raised to the given power, minus one (ex-1)
(function) [edit]
C documentation for log1p