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std::unique_lock::unique_lock

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Revision as of 07:46, 15 September 2013 by Cubbi (Talk | contribs)

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unique_lock();
(1) (since C++11)
unique_lock( unique_lock&& other );
(2) (since C++11)
explicit unique_lock( mutex_type& m );
(3) (since C++11)
unique_lock( mutex_type& m, std::defer_lock_t t );
(4) (since C++11)
unique_lock( mutex_type& m, std::try_to_lock_t t );
(5) (since C++11)
unique_lock( mutex_type& m, std::adopt_lock_t t );
(6) (since C++11)
template< class Rep, class Period >

unique_lock( mutex_type& m,

             const std::chrono::duration<Rep,Period>& timeout_duration );
(7) (since C++11)
template< class Clock, class Duration >

unique_lock( mutex_type& m,

             const std::chrono::time_point<Clock,Duration>& timeout_time );
(8) (since C++11)

Constructs a unique_lock, optionally locking the supplied mutex.

1) Constructs a unique_lock with no associated mutex.
2) Move constructor. Initializes the unique_lock with the contents of other. Leaves other with no associated mutex.
3-8) Constructs a unique_lock with m as the associated mutex. Additionally:
3) Locks the associated mutex by calling m.lock(). The behavior is undefined if the current thread already owns the mutex except when the mutex is recursive.
4) Does not lock the associated mutex.
5) Tries to lock the associated mutex without blocking by calling m.try_lock(). The behavior is undefined if the current thread already owns the mutex except when the mutex is recursive.
6) Assumes the calling thread already owns m.
7) Tries to lock the associated mutex by calling m.try_lock_for(timeout_duration). Blocks until specified timeout_duration has elapsed or the lock is acquired, whichever comes first. May block for longer than timeout_duration.
8) Tries to lock the associated mutex by calling m.try_lock_until(timeout_time). Blocks until specified timeout_time has been reached or the lock is acquired, whichever comes first. May block for longer than until timeout_time has been reached.

[edit] Parameters

other - another unique_lock to initialize the state with
m - mutex to associate with the lock and optionally acquire ownership of
t - tag parameter used to select constructors with different locking strategies
timeout_duration - maximum duration to block for
timeout_time - maximum time point to block until

[edit] Exceptions

1, 2, 4)
noexcept specification:  
noexcept
  

[edit] Example

#include <cassert>
#include <iostream> // std::cout
#include <thread>
#include <vector>
#include <mutex>
 
class Number;
std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& stream, const Number& number);
 
class Number {
 public:
  Number() : v_(1) {}
 
  // thread-safe update of 'a' and 'b'
  static void update(Number& a, Number& b, bool order) {
    // do not lock 'mutex_' of 'a' and 'b' sequentially,
    // two sequential lock may lead to deadlock,
    // that's why 'std::lock' exists (see below)
    GuardLock lock_a(a.mutex_, std::defer_lock);
    GuardLock lock_b(b.mutex_, std::defer_lock);
 
    // mutexes is not locked
    assert(!lock_a.owns_lock());
    assert(!lock_b.owns_lock());
 
    // unspecified series of calls...
    std::lock(lock_a, lock_b);
 
    // Result: 'a.mutex_' and 'b.mutex_' is in locked state
    // 'a' and 'b' can be modified safety
    assert(lock_a.owns_lock());
    assert(lock_b.owns_lock());
 
    if (order) {
      a.v_ += b.v_;
      b.v_ += a.v_;
 
      std::cout << a << b;
    }
    else {
      b.v_ += a.v_;
      a.v_ += b.v_;
 
      std::cout << b << a;
    }
 
    // 'lock_a' and 'lock_b' will be destroyed,
    // unlocking 'a.mutex_' and 'b.mutex_'
  }
 
  // not thread-safe; used before thread creation or in thread-safe 'update'
  std::ostream& print(std::ostream& stream) const {
    stream << v_ << " ";
    return stream;
  }
 
 private:
  using Mutex = std::mutex;
  using GuardLock = std::unique_lock<Mutex>;
 
  Mutex mutex_;
  int v_;
};
 
// not thread-safe; see 'Number::print'
std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& stream, const Number& number) {
  return number.print(stream);
}
 
int main() {
  Number a, b;
  std::cout << a << b;
 
  std::vector<std::thread> threads;
 
  for (unsigned i = 0; i < 4; ++i) {
    // without 'std::lock' deadlock may occur in this situation:
    //   thread #1 lock 'a.mutex_'
    //   thread #2 lock 'b.mutex_'
    //   thread #1 try to lock 'b.mutex_' and blocked (it's locked by #2)
    //   thread #2 try to lock 'a.mutex_' and blocked (it's locked by #1)
    //   ... deadlock
    threads.emplace_back(Number::update, std::ref(a), std::ref(b), true); // #1
    threads.emplace_back(Number::update, std::ref(b), std::ref(a), false); // #2
  }
 
  for (auto& i: threads) {
    i.join();
  }
 
  std::cout << '\n';
}

Output:

1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584