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std::placeholders::_1, std::placeholders::_2, ..., std::placeholders::_N

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Template:ddcl list begin <tr class="t-dsc-header">

<td>
Defined in header <functional>
</td>

<td></td> <td></td> <tr class="t-dcl ">

<td class="t-dcl-nopad">
extern /*unspecified*/ _1;

extern /*unspecified*/ _2;
.
.

extern /*unspecified*/ _N;
</td>

<td class="t-dcl-nopad"> </td> <td class="t-dcl-nopad"> </td> </tr> Template:ddcl list end

The std::placeholders namespace contains the placeholder objects [_1, . . . _N] where N is an implementation defined maximum number.

When used as an argument in a std::bind expression, the placeholder objects are stored in the generated function object, and when that function object is invoked with unbound arguments, each placeholder _N is replaced by the corresponding Nth unbound argument.

The types of the placeholder objects are DefaultConstructible and CopyConstructible, their default copy/move constructors do not throw exceptions, and for any placeholder _N, the type std::is_placeholder<decltype(_N)> is defined and is derived from std::integral_constant<int, N>.

Example

The following code shows the creation of function objects with a placeholder argument.

#include <functional>
#include <string>
#include <iostream>
 
void goodbye(const std::string& s)
{
    std::cout << "Goodbye " << s << '\n';
}
 
class Object {
public:
    void hello(const std::string& s)
    {
        std::cout << "Hello " << s << '\n';
    }
};
 
int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    typedef std::function<void(const std::string&)> ExampleFunction;
    Object instance;
    std::string str("World");
    ExampleFunction f = std::bind(&Object::hello, &instance, 
                                  std::placeholders::_1);
 
    // equivalent to instance.hello(str)
    f(str);
    f = std::bind(&goodbye, std::placeholders::_1);
 
    // equivalent to goodbye(str)
    f(str);    
    return 0;
}

Output:

Hello World
Goodbye World

See also

(C++11)
binds one or more arguments to a function object
(function template) [edit]
indicates that an object is a standard placeholder or can be used as one
(class template) [edit]