if statement

< c‎ | language

Conditionally executes code.

Used where code needs to be executed only if some condition is true.


[edit] Syntax

if ( expression ) statement_true (1)
if ( expression ) statement_true else statement_false (2)

[edit] Explanation

expression must be an expression of any scalar type.

If expression compares not equal to the integer zero, statement_true is executed.

In the form (2), if expression compares equal to the integer zero, statement_false is executed.

As with all other selection and iteration statements, the entire if-statement has its own block scope:

enum {a, b};
int different(void)
    if (sizeof(enum {b, a}) != sizeof(int))
        return a; // a == 1
    return b; // b == 0 in C89, b == 1 in C99
(since C99)

[edit] Notes

The else is always associated with the closest preceding if (in other words, if statement_true is also an if statement, then that inner if statement must contain an else part as well):

int j = 1;
if (i > 1)
   if(j > 2)
       printf("%d > 1 and %d > 2\n", i, j);
    else // this else is part of if(j>2), not part of if(i>1) 
       printf("%d > 1 and %d <= 2\n", i, j);

If statement_true is entered through a goto, statement_false is not executed.

[edit] Keywords

if, else

[edit] Example

#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
    int i = 2;
    if (i > 2) {
        printf("first is true\n");
    } else {
        printf("first is false\n");
    i = 3;
    if (i == 3) printf("i == 3\n");
    if (i != 3) printf("i != 3 is true\n");
    else        printf("i != 3 is false\n");


first is false
i == 3
i != 3 is false

[edit] See Also

C++ documentation for if statement