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setjmp

From cppreference.com
< c‎ | program
Defined in header <setjmp.h>
#define setjmp(env) /* implementation-defined */

Saves the current execution context into a variable env of type jmp_buf. This variable can later be used to restore the current execution context by longjmp function. That is, when a call to longjmp function is made, the execution continues at the particular call site that constructed the jmp_buf variable passed to longjmp. In that case setjmp returns the value passed to longjmp.

The invocation of setjmp must appear only in one of the following contexts:

  • the entire controlling expression of a selection or iteration statement (if, switch, for, while, do-while)
switch(setjmp(env)) { ..
  • one operand of a relational or equality operator with the other operand an integer constant expression, with the resulting expression being the entire controlling expression of a selection or iteration statement
if(setjmp(env) > 10) { ...
  • the operand of a unary ! operator with the resulting expression being the entire controlling expression of a selection or iteration statement
while(!setjmp(env)) { ...
  • the entire expression of an expression statement (possibly cast to void).
setjmp(env);

If setjmp appears in any other context, the behavior is undefined.

Upon return to the scope of setjmp, all accessible objects, floating-point status flags, and other components of the abstract machine have the same values as they had when longjmp was executed, except for the non-volatile local variables in setjmp's scope, whose values are indeterminate if they have been changed since the setjmp invocation.

Contents

[edit] Parameters

env - variable to save the execution state of the program to.

[edit] Return value

0 if the macro was called by the original code and the execution context was saved to env.

Non-zero value if a non-local jump was just performed. The return value in the same as passed to longjmp.

[edit] Example

#include <stdio.h>
#include <setjmp.h>
#include <stdnoreturn.h>
 
jmp_buf jump_buffer;
 
noreturn void a(int count) 
{
    printf("a(%d) called\n", count);
    longjmp(jump_buffer, count+1); // will return count+1 out of setjmp
}
 
int main(void)
{
    volatile int count = 0; // modified local vars in setjmp scope must be volatile
    if (setjmp(jump_buffer) != 9) // compare against constant in an if
        a(++count);
}

Output:

a(1) called
a(2) called
a(3) called
a(4) called
a(5) called
a(6) called
a(7) called
a(8) called

[edit] References

  • C11 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2011):
  • 7.13.1.1 The setjmp macro (p: 262-263)
  • C99 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1999):
  • 7.13.1.1 The setjmp macro (p: 243-244)
  • C89/C90 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1990):
  • 4.6.1 The setjmp macro

[edit] See also

jumps to specified location
(function) [edit]