< cpp‎ | algorithm
Algorithm library
Execution policies (C++17)
Non-modifying sequence operations
Modifying sequence operations
Operations on uninitialized storage
Partitioning operations
Sorting operations
Binary search operations
Set operations (on sorted ranges)
Heap operations
Minimum/maximum operations

Numeric operations
C library
Defined in header <algorithm>
template< class BidirIt, class UnaryPredicate >
BidirIt partition( BidirIt first, BidirIt last, UnaryPredicate p );
(until C++11)
template< class ForwardIt, class UnaryPredicate >
ForwardIt partition( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, UnaryPredicate p );
(since C++11)
template< class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIt, class UnaryPredicate >
ForwardIt partition( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, UnaryPredicate p );
(2) (since C++17)
1) Reorders the elements in the range [first, last) in such a way that all elements for which the predicate p returns true precede the elements for which predicate p returns false. Relative order of the elements is not preserved.
2) Same as (1), but executed according to policy. This overload does not participate in overload resolution unless std::is_execution_policy_v<std::decay_t<ExecutionPolicy>> is true


[edit] Parameters

first, last - the range of elements to reorder
policy - the execution policy to use. See execution policy for details.
p - unary predicate which returns ​true if the element should be ordered before other elements.

The signature of the predicate function should be equivalent to the following:

 bool pred(const Type &a);

The signature does not need to have const &, but the function must not modify the objects passed to it.
The type Type must be such that an object of type ForwardIt can be dereferenced and then implicitly converted to Type. ​

Type requirements
BidirIt must meet the requirements of BidirectionalIterator.
ForwardIt must meet the requirements of ValueSwappable and ForwardIterator. However, the operation is more efficient if ForwardIt also satisfies the requirements of BidirectionalIterator
UnaryPredicate must meet the requirements of Predicate.

[edit] Return value

Iterator to the first element of the second group.

[edit] Complexity

Exactly std::distance(first,last) applications of the predicate and at most std::distance(first,last) swaps. If ForwardIt meets the requirements of BidirectionalIterator at most std::distance(first,last)/2 swaps are done.

[edit] Exceptions

The overload with a template parameter named ExecutionPolicy reports errors as follows:

  • If execution of a function invoked as part of the algorithm throws an exception,
  • if policy is std::parallel_vector_execution_policy, std::terminate is called
  • if policy is std::sequential_execution_policy or std::parallel_execution_policy, the algorithm exits with an std::exception_list containing all uncaught exceptions. If there was only one uncaught exception, the algorithm may rethrow it without wrapping in std::exception_list. It is unspecified how much work the algorithm will perform before returning after the first exception was encountered.
  • if policy is some other type, the behavior is implementation-defined
  • If the algorithm fails to allocate memory (either for itself or to construct an std::exception_list when handling a user exception), std::bad_alloc is thrown.

[edit] Possible implementation

template<class ForwardIt, class UnaryPredicate>
ForwardIt partition(ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, UnaryPredicate p)
    first = std::find_if_not(first, last, p);
    if (first == last) return first;
    for(ForwardIt i = std::next(first); i != last; ++i){
            std::iter_swap(i, first);
    return first;

[edit] Example

#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <iterator>
#include <vector>
#include <forward_list>
template <class ForwardIt>
 void quicksort(ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last)
    if(first == last) return;
    auto pivot = *std::next(first, std::distance(first,last)/2);
    ForwardIt middle1 = std::partition(first, last, 
                         [pivot](const auto& em){ return em < pivot; });
    ForwardIt middle2 = std::partition(middle1, last, 
                         [pivot](const auto& em){ return !(pivot < em); });
    quicksort(first, middle1);
    quicksort(middle2, last);
int main()
    std::vector<int> v = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
    std::cout << "Original vector:\n    ";
    for (int elem : v) std::cout << elem << ' ';
    auto it = std::partition(v.begin(), v.end(), [](int i){return i % 2 == 0;});
    std::cout << "\nPartitioned vector:\n    ";
    std::copy(std::begin(v), it, std::ostream_iterator<int>(std::cout, " "));
    std::cout << " * ";
    std::copy(it, std::end(v), std::ostream_iterator<int>(std::cout, " "));
    std::forward_list<int> fl = {1, 30, -4, 3, 5, -4, 1, 6, -8, 2, -5, 64, 1, 92};
    std::cout << "\nUnsorted list:\n    ";
    for(int n : fl) std::cout << n << ' ';
    std::cout << '\n';  
    quicksort(std::begin(fl), std::end(fl));
    std::cout << "Sorted using quicksort:\n    ";
    for(int fi : fl) std::cout << fi << ' ';
    std::cout << '\n';


Original vector:
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
Partitioned vector:
    0 8 2 6 4  *  5 3 7 1 9 
Unsorted list:
    1 30 -4 3 5 -4 1 6 -8 2 -5 64 1 92 
Sorted using quicksort:
    -8 -5 -4 -4 1 1 1 2 3 5 6 30 64 92

[edit] See also

determines if the range is partitioned by the given predicate
(function template) [edit]
divides elements into two groups while preserving their relative order
(function template) [edit]
parallelized version of std::partition
(function template) [edit]