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std::set_union

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | algorithm
 
 
Algorithm library
Execution policies (C++17)
Non-modifying sequence operations
(C++11)(C++11)(C++11)
(C++17)
Modifying sequence operations
Operations on uninitialized storage
Partitioning operations
Sorting operations
(C++11)
Binary search operations
Set operations (on sorted ranges)
Heap operations
(C++11)
Minimum/maximum operations
(C++11)
(C++17)

Permutations
Numeric operations
C library
 
Defined in header <algorithm>
template< class InputIt1, class InputIt2, class OutputIt >

OutputIt set_union( InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,
                    InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2,

                    OutputIt d_first );
(1)
template< class ExecutionPolicy, class InputIt1, class InputIt2, class OutputIt >

OutputIt set_union( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,
                    InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2,

                    OutputIt d_first );
(2) (since C++17)
template< class InputIt1, class InputIt2,

          class OutputIt, class Compare >
OutputIt set_union( InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,
                    InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2,

                    OutputIt d_first, Compare comp );
(3)
template< class ExecutionPolicy, class InputIt1, class InputIt2,

          class OutputIt, class Compare >
OutputIt set_union( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,
                    InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2,

                    OutputIt d_first, Compare comp );
(4) (since C++17)

Constructs a sorted range beginning at d_first consisting of all elements present in one or both sorted ranges [first1, last1) and [first2, last2).

If some element is found m times in [first1, last1) and n times in [first2, last2), then all m elements will be copied from [first1, last1) to d_first, preserving order, and then exactly std::max(n-m, 0) elements will be copied from [first2, last2) to d_first, also preserving order.

The resulting range cannot overlap with either of the input ranges.

1) Elements are compared using operator< and the ranges must be sorted with respect to the same.
3) Elements are compared using the given binary comparison function comp and the ranges must be sorted with respect to the same.
2,4) Same as (1,3), but executed according to policy. These overloads do not participate in overload resolution unless std::is_execution_policy_v<std::decay_t<ExecutionPolicy>> is true

Contents

[edit] Parameters

first1, last1 - the first input sorted range
first2, last2 - the second input sorted range
policy - the execution policy to use. See execution policy for details.
comp - comparison function object (i.e. an object that satisfies the requirements of Compare) which returns ​true if the first argument is less than (i.e. is ordered before) the second.

The signature of the comparison function should be equivalent to the following:

 bool cmp(const Type1 &a, const Type2 &b);

The signature does not need to have const &, but the function object must not modify the objects passed to it.
The types Type1 and Type2 must be such that objects of types InputIt1 and InputIt2 can be dereferenced and then implicitly converted to both Type1 and Type2. ​

Type requirements
-
InputIt1 must meet the requirements of InputIterator.
-
InputIt2 must meet the requirements of InputIterator.
-
OutputIt must meet the requirements of OutputIterator.

[edit] Return value

Iterator past the end of the constructed range.

[edit] Complexity

At most 2·(N1+N2-1) comparisons, where N1 = std::distance(first1, last1) and N2 = std::distance(first2, last2).

[edit] Exceptions

The overloads with a template parameter named ExecutionPolicy report errors as follows:

  • If execution of a function invoked as part of the algorithm throws an exception,
  • if policy is std::parallel_vector_execution_policy, std::terminate is called
  • if policy is std::sequential_execution_policy or std::parallel_execution_policy, the algorithm exits with an std::exception_list containing all uncaught exceptions. If there was only one uncaught exception, the algorithm may rethrow it without wrapping in std::exception_list. It is unspecified how much work the algorithm will perform before returning after the first exception was encountered.
  • if policy is some other type, the behavior is implementation-defined
  • If the algorithm fails to allocate memory (either for itself or to construct an std::exception_list when handling a user exception), std::bad_alloc is thrown.

[edit] Notes

This algorithm performs a similar task as std::merge does. Both consume two sorted input ranges and produce a sorted output with elements from both inputs. The difference bewteen these two algorithms is with handling values from both input ranges which compare equivalent (see notes on LessThanComparable). If any equivalent values appeared n times in the first range and m times in the second, std::merge would output all n+m occurrences whereas std::set_union would output std::max(n, m) ones only. So std::merge outputs exactly std::distance(first1, last1) + std::distance(first2, last2) values and std::set_union may produce less.

[edit] Possible implementation

First version
template<class InputIt1, class InputIt2, class OutputIt>
OutputIt set_union(InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,
                   InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2,
                   OutputIt d_first)
{
    for (; first1 != last1; ++d_first) {
        if (first2 == last2)
            return std::copy(first1, last1, d_first);
        if (*first2 < *first1) {
            *d_first = *first2++;
        } else {
            *d_first = *first1;
            if (!(*first1 < *first2))
                ++first2;
            ++first1;
        }
    }
    return std::copy(first2, last2, d_first);
}
Second version
template<class InputIt1, class InputIt2,
         class OutputIt, class Compare>
OutputIt set_union(InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,
                   InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2,
                   OutputIt d_first, Compare comp)
{
    for (; first1 != last1; ++d_first) {
        if (first2 == last2)
            return std::copy(first1, last1, d_first);
        if (comp(*first2, *first1)) {
            *d_first = *first2++;
        } else {
            *d_first = *first1;
            if (!comp(*first1, *first2))
                ++first2;
            ++first1;
        }
    }
    return std::copy(first2, last2, d_first);
}

[edit] Example

Example with vectors :

#include <vector>
#include <set>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <iterator>
 
int main()
{
    std::vector<int> v1 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; 
    std::vector<int> v2 = {      3, 4, 5, 6, 7}; 
    std::vector<int> dest1;
 
    std::set_union(v1.begin(), v1.end(),
                   v2.begin(), v2.end(),                  
                   std::back_inserter(dest1));
 
    for (const auto &i : dest1) {
        std::cout << i << ' ';
    }   
    std::cout << '\n';
}

Output:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

[edit] See also

returns true if one set is a subset of another
(function template) [edit]
merges two sorted ranges
(function template) [edit]
computes the difference between two sets
(function template) [edit]
computes the intersection of two sets
(function template) [edit]
computes the symmetric difference between two sets
(function template) [edit]
parallelized version of std::set_union
(function template) [edit]