int printf( const char* format, ... ); 
(1) 

int fprintf( std::FILE* stream, const char* format, ... ); 
(2) 

int sprintf( char* buffer, const char* format, ... ); 
(3) 

int snprintf( char* buffer, std::size_t buf_size, const char* format, ... ); 
(4) 
(since C++11) 
  
Loads the data from the given locations, converts them to character string equivalents and writes the results to a variety of sinks.
1) Writes the results to
stdout.
2) Writes the results to a file stream stream
.
3) Writes the results to a character string buffer
.
4) Writes the results to a character string buffer
. At most buf_size
 1 characters are written. The resulting character string will be terminated with a null character, unless buf_size
is zero.
[edit] Parameters
stream



output file stream to write to

buffer



pointer to a character string to write to

buf_size



up to buf_size  1 characters may be written, plus the null terminator

format



pointer to a nullterminated multibyte string specifying how to interpret the data.
The format string consists of ordinary characters (except % ), which are copied unchanged into the output stream, and conversion specifications. Each conversion specification has the following format:

 (optional) one or more flags that modify the behavior of the conversion:

 : the result of the conversion is leftjustified within the field (by default it is rightjustified)

+ : the sign of signed conversions is always prepended to the result of the conversion (by default the result is preceded by minus only when it is negative)
 space: if the result of a signed conversion does not start with a sign character, or is empty, space is prepended to the result. It is ignored if
+ flag is present.

# : alternative form of the conversion is performed. See the table below for exact effects.

0 : for integer and floating point number conversions, leading zeros are used to pad the field instead of space characters. For floating point numbers it is ignored if the precision is explicitly specified. For other conversions using this flag results in undefined behavior. It is ignored if  flag is present.
 (optional) integer value or
* that specifies minimum field width. The result is padded with space characters (by default), if required, on the left when rightjustified, or on the right if leftjustified. In the case when * is used, the width is specified by an additional argument of type int. If the value of the argument is negative, it results with the  flag specified and positive field width.
 (optional)
. followed by integer number or * that specifies precision of the conversion. In the case when * is used, the precision is specified by an additional argument of type int. If the value of this argument is negative, it is ignored. See the table below for exact effects of precision.
 (optional) length modifier that specifies the size of the argument
 conversion format specifier
The following format specifiers are available:
Conversion specifier

Explanation

Argument type

length modifier

hh

h

(none)

l

ll

j

z

t

L

%

writes literal % . The full conversion specification must be %% .

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

c

 writes a single character.
The argument is first converted to unsigned char.
If the l modifier is used, the argument is first converted to a character string as if by %ls with a wchar_t[2] argument.

N/A

N/A



N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

s

 writes a character string
The argument must be a pointer to the initial element of an array of characters.
Precision specifies the maximum number of bytes to be written. If Precision is not specified, writes every byte up to and not including the first null terminator.
If the l specifier is used, the argument must be a pointer to the initial element of an array of wchar_t, which is converted to char array as if by a call to std::wcrtomb with zeroinitialized conversion state.

N/A

N/A



N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

d i

 converts a signed integer into decimal representation []dddd.
Precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear. The default precision is 1.
If both the converted value and the precision are 0 the conversion results in no characters.









N/A

o

 converts a unsigned integer into octal representation oooo.
Precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear. The default precision is 1.
If both the converted value and the precision are 0 the conversion results in no characters.
In the alternative implementation precision is increased if necessary, to write one leading zero.
In that case if both the converted value and the precision are 0, single 0 is written.








unsigned version of ptrdiff_t

N/A

x X

 converts an unsigned integer into hexadecimal representation hhhh.
For the x conversion letters abcdef are used.
For the X conversion letters ABCDEF are used.
Precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear. The default precision is 1.
If both the converted value and the precision are 0 the conversion results in no characters.
In the alternative implementation 0x or 0X is prefixed to results if the converted value is nonzero.

N/A

u

 converts an unsigned integer into decimal representation dddd.
Precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear.
The default precision is 1.
If both the converted value and the precision are 0 the conversion results in no characters.

N/A

f F

 converts floatingpoint number to the decimal notation in the style []ddd.ddd.
Precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear after the decimal point character.
The default precision is 6.
In the alternative implementation decimal point character is written even if no digits follow it.
For infinity and notanumber conversion style see notes.

N/A

N/A



N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A


e E

 converts floatingpoint number to the decimal exponent notation.
For the e conversion style []d.ddde ±dd is used.
For the E conversion style []d.dddE ±dd is used.
The exponent contains at least two digits, more digits are used only if necessary.
If the value is 0, the exponent is also 0.
Precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear after the decimal point character.
The default precision is 6.
In the alternative implementation decimal point character is written even if no digits follow it.
For infinity and notanumber conversion style see notes.

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

a A

 converts floatingpoint number to the hexadecimal exponent notation.
For the a conversion style []0x h.hhhp ±d is used.
For the A conversion style []0X h.hhhP ±d is used.
The first hexadecimal digit is 0 if the argument is not a normalized floating point value.
If the value is 0, the exponent is also 0.
Precision specifies the minimum number of digits to appear after the decimal point character.
The default precision is sufficient for exact representation of the value.
In the alternative implementation decimal point character is written even if no digits follow it.
For infinity and notanumber conversion style see notes.

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

g G

 converts floatingpoint number to decimal or decimal exponent notation depending on the value and the precision.
For the g conversion style conversion with style e or f will be performed.
For the G conversion style conversion with style E or F will be performed.
Let P equal the precision if nonzero, 6 if the precision is not specified, or 1 if the precision is 0. Then, if a conversion with style E would have an exponent of X :
 if P > X ≥ −4, the conversion is with style
f or F and precision P − 1 − X.
 otherwise, the conversion is with style
e or E and precision P − 1.
Unless alternative representation is requested the trailing zeros are removed, also the decimal point character is removed if no fractional part is left.
For infinity and notanumber conversion style see notes.

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

n

 returns the number of characters written so far by this call to the function.
The result is written to the value pointed to by the argument.
The complete specification must be %n .









N/A

p

writes an implementation defined character sequence defining a pointer.

N/A

N/A

void*

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

 Notes:
The floating point conversion functions convert infinity to inf or infinity . Which one is used is implementation defined.
Notanumber is converted to nan or nan(char_sequence) . Which one is used is implementation defined.
The conversions F , E , G , A output INF , INFINITY , NAN instead.
Even though %c expects int argument, it is safe to pass a char because of the integer promotion that takes place when a variadic function is called
The correct conversion specifiers for the fixedwidth character types (std::int8_t, etc) are defined in the header <cinttypes>


...



arguments specifying data to print. If any argument is not the type expected by the corresponding conversion specifier, or if there are less arguments than required by format , the behavior is undefined. If there are more arguments than required by format , the extraneous arguments are evaluated and ignored

[edit] Return value
12) Number of characters written if successful or negative value if an error occurred.
3) Number of characters written if successful (not including the terminating nullbyte) or negative value if an error occurred.
4) Number of characters written if successful (not including the terminating nullbyte) or negative value if an error occurred. If the resulting string gets truncated due to buf_size
limit, function returns the total number of characters (not including the terminating nullbyte) which would have been written, if the limit was not imposed.
POSIX specifies that errno is set on error.
[edit] Example
#include <cstdio>
#include <limits>
#include <cstdint>
#include <cinttypes>
int main()
{
std::printf("Strings:\n");
const char* s = "Hello";
std::printf("\t.%10s.\n\t.%10s.\n\t.%*s.\n", s, s, 10, s);
std::printf("Characters:\t%c %%\n", 65);
std::printf("Integers\n");
std::printf("Decimal:\t%i %d %.6i %i %.0i %+i %u\n", 1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 4, 1);
std::printf("Hexadecimal:\t%x %x %X %#x\n", 5, 10, 10, 6);
std::printf("Octal:\t%o %#o %#o\n", 10, 10, 4);
std::printf("Floating point\n");
std::printf("Rounding:\t%f %.0f %.32f\n", 1.5, 1.5, 1.3);
std::printf("Padding:\t%05.2f %.2f %5.2f\n", 1.5, 1.5, 1.5);
std::printf("Scientific:\t%E %e\n", 1.5, 1.5);
std::printf("Hexadecimal:\t%a %A\n", 1.5, 1.5);
std::printf("Special values:\t0/0=%g 1/0=%g\n", 0./0, 1./0);
std::printf("Variable width control:\n");
std::printf("rightjustified variable width: '%*c'\n", 5, 'x');
int r = std::printf("leftjustified variable width : '%*c'\n", 5, 'x');
std::printf("(the last printf printed %d characters)\n", r);
// fixedwidth types
std::uint32_t val = std::numeric_limits<std::uint32_t>::max();
std::printf("Largest 32bit value is %" PRIu32 " or %#" PRIx32 "\n", val, val);
}
Output:
Strings:
. Hello.
.Hello .
. Hello.
Characters: A %
Integers
Decimal: 1 2 000003 0 +4 4294967295
Hexadecimal: 5 a A 0x6
Octal: 12 012 04
Floating point
Rounding: 1.500000 2 1.30000000000000004440892098500626
Padding: 01.50 1.50 1.50
Scientific: 1.500000E+00 1.500000e+00
Hexadecimal: 0x1.8p+0 0X1.8P+0
Special values: 0/0=nan 1/0=inf
Variable width control:
rightjustified variable width: ' x'
leftjustified variable width : 'x '
(the last printf printed 40 characters)
Largest 32bit value is 4294967295 or 0xffffffff
[edit] See also

prints formatted output to stdout, a file stream or a buffer using variable argument list (function) [edit]


writes a character string to a file stream (function) [edit]


reads formatted input from stdin, a file stream or a buffer (function) [edit]

