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std::end

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | iterator
Defined in header <iterator>
template< class C >
auto end( C& c ) -> decltype(c.end());
(1) (since C++11)
template< class C >
auto end( const C& c ) -> decltype(c.end());
(1) (since C++11)
(2)
template< class T, size_t N >
T* end( T (&array)[N] );
(since C++11)
(until C++14)
template< class T, size_t N >
constexpr T* end( T (&array)[N] );
(since C++14)
template< class C >
constexpr auto cend( const C& c ) -> decltype(std::end(c));
(3) (since C++14)

Returns an iterator to the end (i.e. the element after the last element) of the given container c or array array.

1) Returns a possibly const-qualified iterator to the end of the container c.
2) Returns a pointer to the end of the array array.
3) Returns a const-qualified iterator to the end of the container c.

range-begin-end.svg

Contents

[edit] Parameters

c - a container with an end method
array - an array of arbitrary type

[edit] Return value

An iterator to the end of c or array. Note that the end of a container or array is defined as the element following the last valid element.

[edit] Exceptions

2)
noexcept specification:  
noexcept
  
(since C++14)
3)
noexcept specification:  
noexcept(noexcept(std::end(c)))

[edit] Notes

In addition to being included in <iterator>, std::end is guaranteed to become available if any of the following headers are included: <array>, <deque>, <forward_list>, <list>, <map>, <regex>, <set>, <string>, <unordered_map>, <unordered_set>, and <vector>.

[edit] User-defined overloads

Custom overloads of std::end may be provided for classes that do not expose a suitable end() member function, yet can be iterated. The following overloads are already provided by the standard library:

specializes std::end
(function template) [edit]
specializes std::end
(function template) [edit]

Similar to the use of swap (described in Swappable), typical use of the end function in generic context is an equivalent of using std::end; end(arg);, which lets both the ADL-selected overloads for user-defined types and the standard library function templates to appear in the same overload set.

template<typename Container, typename Function>
void for_each(Container&& cont, Function f) {
    using std::begin;
    auto it = begin(cont);
    using std::end;
    auto end_it = end(cont);
    while (it != end_it) {
        f(*it);
        ++it;
    }
}

[edit] Example

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <iterator>
#include <algorithm>
 
int main() 
{
    std::vector<int> v = { 3, 1, 4 };
    if (std::find(std::begin(v), std::end(v), 5) != std::end(v)) {
        std::cout << "found a 5 in vector v!\n";
    }
 
    int a[] = { 5, 10, 15 };
    if (std::find(std::begin(a), std::end(a), 5) != std::end(a)) {
        std::cout << "found a 5 in array a!\n";
    }
}

Output:

found a 5 in array a!

[edit] See also

(C++11)(C++14)
returns an iterator to the beginning of a container or array
(function) [edit]