C++ Operator Precedence
The following table lists the precedence and associativity of C++ operators. Operators are listed top to bottom, in descending precedence.
||Suffix/postfix increment and decrement|
||Member access through pointer|
||Prefix increment and decrement||Right-to-left|
||Unary plus and minus|
||Logical NOT and bitwise NOT|
||C-style explicit cast|
||Dynamic memory allocation|
||Dynamic memory deallocation|
||Pointer to member||Left-to-right|
||Multiplication, division, and remainder|
||Addition and subtraction|
||Bitwise left shift and right shift|
||For relational operators < and ≤ respectively|
||For relational operators > and ≥ respectively|
||For relational operators = and ≠ respectively|
||Bitwise XOR (exclusive or)|
||Bitwise OR (inclusive or)|
||Ternary conditional[note 2]||Right-to-left|
||Direct assignment (provided by default for C++ classes)|
||Compound assignment by sum and difference|
||Compound assignment by product, quotient, and remainder|
||Compound assignment by bitwise left shift and right shift|
||Compound assignment by bitwise AND, XOR, and OR|
- The operand of
sizeofcan't be a C-style type cast: the expression
sizeof (int) * pis unambiguously interpreted as
(sizeof(int)) * p, but not
- The expression in the middle of the conditional operator (between
:) is parsed as if parenthesized: its precedence relative to
When parsing an expression, an operator which is listed on some row will be bound tighter (as if by parentheses) to its arguments than any operator that is listed on a row further below it. For example, the expressions std::cout<<a&b and *p++ are parsed as (std::cout<<a)&b and *(p++), and not as std::cout<<(a&b) or (*p)++.
Operators that have the same precedence are bound to their arguments in the direction of their associativity. For example, the expression a=b=c is parsed as a=(b=c), and not as (a=b)=c because of right-to-left associativity of assignment, but a+b-c is parsed (a+b)-c and not a+(b-c) because of left-to-right associativity of addition.
Associativity specification is redundant for unary operators and is only shown for completeness: unary prefix operators always associate right-to-left (delete ++*p is delete(++(*p))) and unary postfix operators always associate left-to-right (a++ is ((a))++). Note that the associativity is meaningful for member access operators, even though they are grouped with unary postfix operators: a.b++ is parsed (a.b)++ and not a.(b++))
Operator precedence is unaffected by operator overloading.
Precedence and associativity are compile-time concepts and are independent from order of evaluation, which is a runtime concept.
The standard itself doesn't specify precedence levels. They are derived from the grammar.
Some of the operators have alternate spellings (e.g., and for
&&, or for
||, not for
Relative precedence of the conditional and assignment operators differs between C and C++: in C, assignment is not allowed on the right hand side of a conditional operator, so e = a < d ? a++ : a = d cannot be parsed. Many C compilers use a modified grammar where
?: has higher precedence than
=, which parses that as e = ( ((a < d) ? (a++) : a) = d ) (which then fails to compile because
?: is never lvalue in C and
= requires lvalue on the left). In C++,
= have equal precedence and group right-to-left, so that e = a < d ? a++ : a = d parses as e = ((a < d) ? (a++) : (a = d)).
 See also
a = b
a == b
static_cast converts one type to another compatible type
C documentation for C operator precedence