< cpp‎ | string‎ | byte
Defined in header <cctype>
int toupper( int ch );

Converts the given character to uppercase according to the character conversion rules defined by the currently installed C locale.

In the default "C" locale, the following lowercase letters abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz are replaced with respective uppercase letters ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ.


[edit] Parameters

ch - character to be converted. If the value of ch is not representable as unsigned char and does not equal EOF, the behavior is undefined.

[edit] Return value

Converted character or ch if no uppercase version is defined by the current C locale.

[edit] Example

#include <iostream>
#include <cctype>
#include <clocale>
int main()
    unsigned char c = '\xb8'; // the character ž in ISO-8859-15
                              // but ¸ (cedilla) in ISO-8859-1 
    std::setlocale(LC_ALL, "en_US.iso88591");
    std::cout << std::hex << std::showbase;
    std::cout << "in iso8859-1, toupper('0xb8') gives " << std::toupper(c) << '\n';
    std::setlocale(LC_ALL, "en_US.iso885915");
    std::cout << "in iso8859-15, toupper('0xb8') gives " << std::toupper(c) << '\n';


in iso8859-1, toupper('0xb8') gives 0xb8
in iso8859-15, toupper('0xb8') gives 0xb4

[edit] See also

converts a character to lowercase
(function) [edit]
converts a character to uppercase using the ctype facet of a locale
(function template) [edit]
converts a wide character to uppercase
(function) [edit]
C documentation for toupper