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std::condition_variable::wait_for

From cppreference.com
template< class Rep, class Period >

std::cv_status wait_for( std::unique_lock<std::mutex>& lock,

                         const std::chrono::duration<Rep, Period>& rel_time);
(1) (since C++11)
template< class Rep, class Period, class Predicate >

bool wait_for( std::unique_lock<std::mutex>& lock,
               const std::chrono::duration<Rep, Period>& rel_time,

               Predicate pred);
(2) (since C++11)
1) Atomically releases lock, blocks the current executing thread, and adds it to the list of threads waiting on *this. The thread will be unblocked when notify_all() or notify_one() is executed, or when the relative timeout rel_time expires. It may also be unblocked spuriously. When unblocked, regardless of the reason, lock is reacquired and wait_for() exits. If this function exits via exception, lock is also reacquired. (until C++14)
2) Equivalent to return wait_until(lock, std::chrono::steady_clock::now() + rel_time);. This overload may be used to ignore spurious awakenings.

A steady clock is used to measure the duration. This function may block for longer than timeout_duration due to scheduling or resource contention delays.

Calling this function if lock.mutex() is not locked by the current thread is undefined behavior.

Calling this function if lock.mutex() is not the same mutex as the one used by all other threads that are currently waiting on the same condition variable is undefined behavior.

If these functions fail to meet the postconditions (lock.owns_lock()==true and lock.mutex() is locked by the calling thread), std::terminate is called. For example, this could happen if relocking the mutex throws an exception, (since C++14)

Contents

[edit] Parameters

lock - an object of type std::unique_lock<std::mutex>, which must be locked by the current thread
rel_time - an object of type std::chrono::duration representing the maximum time to spend waiting
pred - predicate which returns ​false if the waiting should be continued.

The signature of the predicate function should be equivalent to the following:

 bool pred();

[edit] Return value

1) std::cv_status::timeout if the relative timeout specified by rel_time expired, std::cv_status::no_timeout otherwise.
2) false if the predicate pred still evaluates to false after the rel_time timeout expired, otherwise true.

[edit] Exceptions

May throw std::system_error, may also propagate exceptions thrown by lock.lock() or lock.unlock().

(until C++14)

Any exception thrown by clock, time_point, or duration during the execution (clocks, time points, and durations provided by the standard library never throw)

(since C++14)

[edit] Example

#include <iostream>
#include <atomic>
#include <condition_variable>
#include <thread>
#include <chrono>
 
std::condition_variable cv;
std::mutex cv_m;
std::atomic<int> i{0};
 
void waits(int idx)
{
    std::unique_lock<std::mutex> lk(cv_m);
    if(cv.wait_for(lk, std::chrono::milliseconds(idx*100), [](){return i == 1;})) 
        std::cerr << "Thread " << idx << " finished waiting. i == " << i << '\n';
    else
        std::cerr << "Thread " << idx << " timed out. i == " << i << '\n';
}
 
void signals()
{
    std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(120));
    std::cerr << "Notifying...\n";
    cv.notify_all();
    std::this_thread::sleep_for(std::chrono::milliseconds(100));
    i = 1;
    std::cerr << "Notifying again...\n";
    cv.notify_all();
}
 
int main()
{
    std::thread t1(waits, 1), t2(waits, 2), t3(waits, 3), t4(signals);
    t1.join(); t2.join(), t3.join(), t4.join();
}

Output:

Thread 1 timed out. i == 0
Notifying...
Thread 2 timed out. i == 0
Notifying again...
Thread 3 finished waiting. i == 1

[edit] See also

blocks the current thread until the condition variable is woken up
(public member function) [edit]
blocks the current thread until the condition variable is woken up or until specified time point has been reached
(public member function) [edit]