Namespaces
Variants
Views
Actions

std::to_chars

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | utility
Defined in header <utility>
std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last,
                              /*see below*/ value, int base = 10);
(1) (since C++17)
std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float       value);

std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double      value);

std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value);
(2) (since C++17)
std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float       value,

                              std::chars_format fmt);
std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double      value,
                              std::chars_format fmt);
std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value,

                              std::chars_format fmt);
(3) (since C++17)
std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float       value,

                              std::chars_format fmt, int precision);
std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double      value,
                              std::chars_format fmt, int precision);
std::to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value,

                              std::chars_format fmt, int precision);
(4) (since C++17)
struct to_chars_result {

    char* ptr;
    std::error_code ec;

};
(5) (since C++17)

Converts value into a character string by successively filling the range [first, last), where [first, last) is required to be a valid range.

1) Integer formatters: value is converted to a string of digits in the given base (with no redundant leading zeroes). Digits in the range 10..35 (inclusive) are represented as lowercase characters a..z. If value is less than zero, the representation starts with a minus sign. The library provides overloads for all signed and unsigned integer types and for the type char as the type of the parameter value.
2) value is converted to a string as if by std::sprintf in the default ("C") locale. The conversion specifier is f or e (resolving in favor of f in case of a tie), chosen according to the requirement for a shortest representation: the string representation consists of the smallest number of characters such that there is at least one digit before the radix point (if present) and parsing the representation using the corresponding std::from_chars function recovers value exactly.
3) same as (2), but the conversion specified for the as-if printf is f if fmt is std::chars_format::fixed, e if fmt is std::chars_format::scientific, a (but without leading "0x" in the result) if fmt is std::chars_format::hex, and g if fmt is chars_format::general.
4) same as (3), except the precision is specified by the parameter precision rather than by the shortest representation requirement.
5) The return type (see Return value below)

Contents

[edit] Parameters

first, last - character range to write to
value - the value to convert to its string representation
base - integer base to use: a value between 2 and 36 (inclusive).
fmt - floating-point formatting to use, a bitmask of type std::chars_format
precision - floating-point precision to use

[edit] Return value

On success, returns a value of type to_chars_result such that ec is false when converted to bool and ptr is the one-past-the-end pointer of the characters written.

On error, returns a value of type to_chars_result holding std::errc::value_too_large in ec, a copy of the value last in ptr, and leaves the contents of the range [first, last) in unspecified state.

[edit] Exceptions

(none)

[edit] Notes

Unlike other formatting functions in C++ and C libraries, std::to_chars is locale-independent, non-allocating, and non-throwing. Only a small subset of formatting policies used by other libraries (such as std::sprintf) is provided. This is intended to allow the fastest possible implementation that is useful in common high-throughput contexts such as text-based interchange (JSON or XML).

The guarantee that std::from_chars can recover every floating-point value formatted by to_chars exactly is only provided if both functions are from the same implementation.

[edit] Example

[edit] See also

(C++11)
converts an integral or floating point value to string
(function) [edit]
prints formatted output to stdout, a file stream or a buffer
(function) [edit]
inserts formatted data
(public member function of std::basic_ostream) [edit]