Increment/decrement operators
Increment/decrement operators are unary operators that increment/decrement the value of a variable by 1.
They can have postfix form:
expr ++


expr 


As well as the prefix form:
++ expr


 expr


The operand expr of both prefix and postfix increment or decrement must be a modifiable lvalue of integer type (including _Bool
and enums), real floating type, or a pointer type. It may be cvrqualified, unqualified, or atomic.
The result of the postfix increment and decrement operators is the value of expr.
The result of the prefix increment operator is the result of adding the value 1
to the value of expr: the expression ++e is equivalent to e += 1. The result of the prefix decrement operator is the result of subtracting the value 1
from the value of expr: the expression e is equivalent to e = 1.
Increment operators initiate the sideeffect of adding the value 1
of appropriate type to the operand. Decrement operators initiate the sideeffect of subtracting the value 1
of appropriate type from the operand. As with any other sideeffects, these operations complete at or before the next sequence point.
int a = 1; int b = a++; // stores 1+a (which is 2) to a // returns the old value of a (which is 1) // After this line, b == 1 and a == 2 a = 1; int c = ++a; // stores 1+a (which is 2) to a // returns 1+a (which is 2) // after this line, c == 2 and a == 2
Postincrement or postdecrement on any atomic variable is an atomic readmodifywrite operation with memory order memory_order_seq_cst. 
(since C11) 
See arithmetic operators for limitations on pointer arithmetic, as well as for implicit conversions applied to the operands.
Contents 
[edit] Notes
Because of the sideeffects involved, increment and decrement operators must be used with care to avoid undefined behavior due to violations of sequencing rules.
Increment/decrement operators are not defined for complex or imaginary types: the usual definition of adding/subtracting the real number 1 would have no effect on imaginary types, and making it add/subtract i
for imaginaries but 1
for complex numbers would have made it handle 0+yi
different from yi
.
Unlike C++ (and some implementations of C), the increment/decrement expressions are never themselves lvalues: &++a is invalid.
[edit] Example
#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int main(void) { int a = 1; int b = 1; printf("original values: a == %d, b == %d\n", a, b); printf("result of postfix operators: a++ == %d, b == %d\n", a++, b); printf("after postfix operators applied: a == %d, b == %d\n", a, b); printf("\n"); // Reset a and b. a = 1; b = 1; printf("original values: a == %d, b == %d\n", a, b); printf("result of prefix operators: ++a == %d, b == %d\n", ++a, b); printf("after prefix operators applied: a == %d, b == %d\n", a, b); }
Output:
original values: a == 1, b == 1 result of postfix operators: a++ == 1, b == 1 after postfix operators applied: a == 2, b == 0 original values: a == 1, b == 1 result of prefix operators: ++a == 2, b == 0 after prefix operators applied: a == 2, b == 0
[edit] References
 C23 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2024):
 6.5.2.4 Postfix increment and decrement operators (p: TBD)
 6.5.3.1 Prefix increment and decrement operators (p: TBD)
 C17 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2018):
 6.5.2.4 Postfix increment and decrement operators (p: TBD)
 6.5.3.1 Prefix increment and decrement operators (p: TBD)
 C11 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2011):
 6.5.2.4 Postfix increment and decrement operators (p: 85)
 6.5.3.1 Prefix increment and decrement operators (p: 88)
 C99 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1999):
 6.5.2.4 Postfix increment and decrement operators (p: 75)
 6.5.3.1 Prefix increment and decrement operators (p: 78)
 C89/C90 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1990):
 3.3.2.4 Postfix increment and decrement operators
 3.3.3.1 Prefix increment and decrement operators
[edit] See also
Common operators  

assignment  increment decrement 
arithmetic  logical  comparison  member access 
other 
a = b 
++a 
+a 
!a 
a == b 
a[b] 
a(...) 
C++ documentation for Increment/decrement operators
