Logical operators
Logical operators apply standard boolean algebra operations to their operands.
Operator  Operator name  Example  Result 

!  logical NOT  !a  the logical negation of a 
&&  logical AND  a && b  the logical AND of a and b 
  logical OR  a  b  the logical OR of a and b 
Contents 
[edit] Logical NOT
The logical NOT expression has the form
! expression


where
expression    an expression of any scalar type 
The logical NOT operator has type int. Its value is 0 if expression evaluates to a value that compares unequal to zero. Its value is 1 if expression evaluates to a value that compares equal to zero. (so !E is the same as (0==E))
#include <stdbool.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <ctype.h> int main(void) { bool b = !(2+2 == 4); // not true printf("!(2+2==4) = %s\n", b ? "true" : "false"); int n = isspace('a'); // zero if 'a' is a space, nonzero otherwise int x = !!n; // "bangbang", common C idiom for mapping integers to [0,1] // (all nonzero values become 1) char *a[2] = {"nonspace", "space"}; printf("%s\n", a[x]); // now x can be safely used as an index to array of 2 ints }
Output:
!(2+2==4) = false nonspace
[edit] Logical AND
The logical AND expression has the form
lhs && rhs


where
lhs    an expression of any scalar type 
rhs    an expression of any scalar type, which is only evaluated if lhs does not compare equal to 0 
The logicalAND operator has type int and the value 1 if both lhs and rhs compare unequal to zero. It has the value 0 otherwise (if either lhs or rhs or both compare equal to zero).
There is a sequence point after the evaluation of lhs. If the result of lhs compares equal to zero, then rhs is not evaluated at all (socalled shortcircuit evaluation)
#include <stdbool.h> #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { bool b = 2+2==4 && 2*2==4; // b == true 1 > 2 && puts("this won't print"); char *p = "abc"; if(p && *p) // common C idiom: if p is not null // AND if p does not point at the end of the string { // (note that thanks to shortcircuit evaluation, this // will not attempt to dereference a null pointer) // ... // ... then do some string processing } }
[edit] Logical OR
The logical OR expression has the form
lhs  rhs


where
lhs    an expression of any scalar type 
rhs    an expression of any scalar type, which is only evaluated if lhs compares equal to 0 
The logicalOR operator has type int and the value 1 if either lhs or rhs compare unequal to zero. It has value 0 otherwise (if both lhs and rhs compare equal to zero).
There is a sequence point after the evaluation of lhs. If the result of lhs compares unequal to zero, then rhs is not evaluated at all (socalled shortcircuit evaluation)
#include <stdbool.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> #include <errno.h> int main(void) { bool b = 2+2 == 4  2+2 == 5; // true printf("true or false = %s\n", b ? "true" : "false"); // logical OR can be used simialar to perl's "or die", as long as rhs has scalar type fopen("test.txt", "r")  printf("could not open test.txt: %s\n", strerror(errno)); }
Possible output:
true or false = true could not open test.txt: No such file or directory
[edit] References
 C11 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2011):
 6.5.3.3 Unary arithmetic operators (p: 89)
 6.5.13 Logical AND operator (p: 99)
 6.5.14 Logical OR operator (p: 99)
 C99 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1999):
 6.5.3.3 Unary arithmetic operators (p: 79)
 6.5.13 Logical AND operator (p: 89)
 6.5.14 Logical OR operator (p: 89)
 C89/C90 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1990):
 3.3.3.3 Unary arithmetic operators
 3.3.13 Logical AND operator
 3.3.14 Logical OR operator
[edit] See Also
Common operators  

assignment  increment decrement 
arithmetic  logical  comparison  member access 
other 
a = b 
++a 
+a 
!a 
a == b 
a[b] 
a(...) 
[edit] See also
C++ documentation for Logical operators
