Namespaces
Variants
Views
Actions

std::includes

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | algorithm
 
 
Algorithm library
Execution policies (C++17)
Non-modifying sequence operations
(C++11)(C++11)(C++11)
(C++17)
Modifying sequence operations
Operations on uninitialized storage
Partitioning operations
Sorting operations
(C++11)
Binary search operations
Set operations (on sorted ranges)
includes

Heap operations
(C++11)
Minimum/maximum operations
(C++11)
(C++17)
Permutations
Numeric operations
C library
 
Defined in header <algorithm>
(1)
template< class InputIt1, class InputIt2 >

bool includes( InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,

               InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2 );
(until C++20)
template< class InputIt1, class InputIt2 >

constexpr bool includes( InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,

                         InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2 );
(since C++20)
template< class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIt1, class ForwardIt2 >

bool includes( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, ForwardIt1 first1, ForwardIt1 last1,

               ForwardIt2 first2, ForwardIt2 last2 );
(2) (since C++17)
(3)
template< class InputIt1, class InputIt2, class Compare >

bool includes( InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,

               InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2, Compare comp );
(until C++20)
template< class InputIt1, class InputIt2, class Compare >

constexpr bool includes( InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,

                         InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2, Compare comp );
(since C++20)
template< class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIt1, class ForwardIt2, class Compare >

bool includes( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, ForwardIt1 first1, ForwardIt1 last1,

               ForwardIt2 first2, ForwardIt2 last2, Compare comp );
(4) (since C++17)

Returns true if the sorted range [first2, last2) is a subsequence of the sorted range [first1, last1). (A subsequence need not be contiguous.)

1) Both ranges must be sorted with operator<.
3) Both ranges must be sorted with the given comparison function comp.
2,4) Same as (1,3), but executed according to policy. This overload only participates in overload resolution if std::is_execution_policy_v<std::decay_t<ExecutionPolicy>> is true

Contents

[edit] Parameters

first1, last1 - the sorted range of elements to examine
first2, last2 - the sorted range of elements to search for
policy - the execution policy to use. See execution policy for details.
comp - comparison function object (i.e. an object that satisfies the requirements of Compare) which returns ​true if the first argument is less than (i.e. is ordered before) the second.

The signature of the comparison function should be equivalent to the following:

 bool cmp(const Type1 &a, const Type2 &b);

While the signature does not need to have const &, the function must not modify the objects passed to it and must be able to accept all values of type (possibly const) Type1 and Type2 regardless of value category (thus, Type1 & is not allowed, nor is Type1 unless for Type1 a move is equivalent to a copy (since C++11)).
The types Type1 and Type2 must be such that an object of type InputIt can be dereferenced and then implicitly converted to both of them. ​

Type requirements
-
InputIt1, InputIt2 must meet the requirements of LegacyInputIterator.
-
ForwardIt1, ForwardIt2 must meet the requirements of LegacyForwardIterator.

[edit] Return value

true if [first2, last2) is a subsequence of [first1, last1); otherwise false.

[edit] Complexity

At most 2·(N1+N2-1) comparisons, where N1 = std::distance(first1, last1) and N2 = std::distance(first2, last2).

[edit] Exceptions

The overloads with a template parameter named ExecutionPolicy report errors as follows:

  • If execution of a function invoked as part of the algorithm throws an exception and ExecutionPolicy is one of the three standard policies, std::terminate is called. For any other ExecutionPolicy, the behavior is implementation-defined.
  • If the algorithm fails to allocate memory, std::bad_alloc is thrown.

[edit] Possible implementation

First version
template<class InputIt1, class InputIt2>
bool includes(InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,
              InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2)
{
    for (; first2 != last2; ++first1)
    {
        if (first1 == last1 || *first2 < *first1)
            return false;
        if ( !(*first1 < *first2) )
            ++first2;
    }
    return true;
}
Second version
template<class InputIt1, class InputIt2>
bool includes(InputIt1 first1, InputIt1 last1,
              InputIt2 first2, InputIt2 last2, Compare comp)
{
    for (; first2 != last2; ++first1)
    {
        if (first1 == last1 || comp(*first2, *first1))
            return false;
        if (!comp(*first1, *first2))
            ++first2;
    }
    return true;
}

[edit] Example

#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <cctype>
#include <vector>
 
int main()
{
  std::vector<char> v1 {'a', 'b', 'c', 'f', 'h', 'x'};
  std::vector<char> v2 {'a', 'b', 'c'};
  std::vector<char> v3 {'a', 'c'};
  std::vector<char> v4 {'g'};
  std::vector<char> v5 {'a', 'c', 'g'};
 
  for (auto i : v1) std::cout << i << ' ';
  std::cout << "\nincludes:\n" << std::boolalpha;
 
  for (auto i : v2) std::cout << i << ' ';
  std::cout << ": " << std::includes(v1.begin(), v1.end(), v2.begin(), v2.end()) << '\n';
  for (auto i : v3) std::cout << i << ' ';
  std::cout << ": " << std::includes(v1.begin(), v1.end(), v3.begin(), v3.end()) << '\n';
  for (auto i : v4) std::cout << i << ' ';
  std::cout << ": " << std::includes(v1.begin(), v1.end(), v4.begin(), v4.end()) << '\n';
  for (auto i : v5) std::cout << i << ' ';
  std::cout << ": " << std::includes(v1.begin(), v1.end(), v5.begin(), v5.end()) << '\n';
 
  auto cmp_nocase = [](char a, char b) {
    return std::tolower(a) < std::tolower(b);
  };
 
  std::vector<char> v6 {'A', 'B', 'C'};
  for (auto i : v6) std::cout << i << ' ';
  std::cout << ": (case-insensitive) "
            << std::includes(v1.begin(), v1.end(), v6.begin(), v6.end(), cmp_nocase)
            << '\n';
}

Output:

a b c f h x
includes:
a b c : true
a c : true
g : false
a c g : false
A B C : (case-insensitive) true

[edit] See also

computes the difference between two sets
(function template) [edit]
searches for a range of elements
(function template) [edit]