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std::upper_bound

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | algorithm
 
 
Algorithm library
Execution policies (C++17)
Non-modifying sequence operations
(C++11)(C++11)(C++11)
(C++17)
Modifying sequence operations
Operations on uninitialized storage
Partitioning operations
Sorting operations
(C++11)
Binary search operations
upper_bound
Set operations (on sorted ranges)
Heap operations
(C++11)
Minimum/maximum operations
(C++11)
(C++17)
Permutations
Numeric operations
C library
 
Defined in header <algorithm>
(1)
template< class ForwardIt, class T >
ForwardIt upper_bound( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value );
(until C++20)
template< class ForwardIt, class T >
constexpr ForwardIt upper_bound( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value );
(since C++20)
(2)
template< class ForwardIt, class T, class Compare >
ForwardIt upper_bound( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value, Compare comp );
(until C++20)
template< class ForwardIt, class T, class Compare >
constexpr ForwardIt upper_bound( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value, Compare comp );
(since C++20)

Returns an iterator pointing to the first element in the range [first, last) that is greater than value, or last if no such element is found.

The range [first, last) must be partitioned with respect to the expression !(value < element) or !comp(value, element), i.e., all elements for which the expression is true must precede all elements for which the expression is false. A fully-sorted range meets this criterion.

The first version uses operator< to compare the elements, the second version uses the given comparison function comp.

Contents

[edit] Parameters

first, last - the range of elements to examine
value - value to compare the elements to
comp - binary predicate which returns ​true if the first argument is less than (i.e. is ordered before) the second.

The signature of the predicate function should be equivalent to the following:

 bool pred(const Type1 &a, const Type2 &b);

While the signature does not need to have const &, the function must not modify the objects passed to it and must be able to accept all values of type (possibly const) Type1 and Type2 regardless of value category (thus, Type1 & is not allowed, nor is Type1 unless for Type1 a move is equivalent to a copy (since C++11)).
The type Type1 must be such that an object of type T can be implicitly converted to Type1. The type Type2 must be such that an object of type ForwardIt can be dereferenced and then implicitly converted to Type2. ​

Type requirements
-
ForwardIt must meet the requirements of ForwardIterator.
-
Compare must meet the requirements of BinaryPredicate. it is not required to satisfy Compare

[edit] Return value

iterator pointing to the first element that is greater than value, or last if no such element is found.

[edit] Complexity

The number of comparisons performed is logarithmic in the distance between first and last (At most log
2
(last - first) + O(1)
comparisons). However, for non-RandomAccessIterators, the number of iterator increments is linear.

[edit] Possible implementation

First version
template<class ForwardIt, class T>
ForwardIt upper_bound(ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value)
{
    ForwardIt it;
    typename std::iterator_traits<ForwardIt>::difference_type count, step;
    count = std::distance(first,last);
 
    while (count > 0) {
        it = first; 
        step = count / 2; 
        std::advance(it, step);
        if (!(value < *it)) {
            first = ++it;
            count -= step + 1;
        } 
        else
            count = step;
    }
    return first;
}
Second version
template<class ForwardIt, class T, class Compare>
ForwardIt upper_bound(ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value, Compare comp)
{
    ForwardIt it;
    typename std::iterator_traits<ForwardIt>::difference_type count, step;
    count = std::distance(first,last);
 
    while (count > 0) {
        it = first; 
        step = count / 2;
        std::advance(it, step);
        if (!comp(value, *it)) {
            first = ++it;
            count -= step + 1;
        } 
        else
            count = step;
    }
    return first;
}

[edit] Example

#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <iterator>
#include <vector>
 
int main()
{
    std::vector<int> data = { 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6 };
 
    auto lower = std::lower_bound(data.begin(), data.end(), 4);
    auto upper = std::upper_bound(data.begin(), data.end(), 4);
 
    std::copy(lower, upper, std::ostream_iterator<int>(std::cout, " "));
}

Output:

4 4 4

[edit] Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 270 C++98 Compare was required to be a strict weak ordering only a partitioning is needed; heterogeneous comparisons permitted

[edit] See also

returns range of elements matching a specific key
(function template) [edit]
returns an iterator to the first element not less than the given value
(function template) [edit]
divides a range of elements into two groups
(function template) [edit]