std::atomic
Defined in header <atomic>


template< class T > struct atomic; 
(1)  (since C++11) 
template< class U > struct atomic<U*>; 
(2)  (since C++11) 
Defined in header <memory>


template< class U > struct atomic<std::shared_ptr<U>>; 
(3)  (since C++20) 
template< class U > struct atomic<std::weak_ptr<U>>; 
(4)  (since C++20) 
Defined in header <stdatomic.h>


#define _Atomic(T) /* see below */ 
(5)  (since C++23) 
Each instantiation and full specialization of the std::atomic
template defines an atomic type. If one thread writes to an atomic object while another thread reads from it, the behavior is welldefined (see memory model for details on data races).
In addition, accesses to atomic objects may establish interthread synchronization and order nonatomic memory accesses as specified by std::memory_order.
std::atomic
is neither copyable nor movable.
The compatibility macro It is unspecified whether any declaration in namespace 
(since C++23) 
Contents 
[edit] Specializations
[edit] Primary template
The primary std::atomic
template may be instantiated with any TriviallyCopyable type T
satisfying both CopyConstructible and CopyAssignable. The program is illformed if any of following values is false:
 std::is_trivially_copyable<T>::value
 std::is_copy_constructible<T>::value
 std::is_move_constructible<T>::value
 std::is_copy_assignable<T>::value
 std::is_move_assignable<T>::value
struct Counters { int a; int b; }; // userdefined triviallycopyable type std::atomic<Counters> cnt; // specialization for the userdefined type
std::atomic<bool> uses the primary template. It is guaranteed to be a standard layout struct and has a trivial destructor.
[edit] Partial specializations
The standard library provides partial specializations of the std::atomic
template for the following types with additional properties that the primary template does not have:
std::atomic<U*>
for all pointer types. These specializations have standard layout, trivial default constructors,(until C++20) and trivial destructors. Besides the operations provided for all atomic types, these specializations additionally support atomic arithmetic operations appropriate to pointer types, such as fetch_add
, fetch_sub
.
3,4) Partial specializations std::atomic<std::shared_ptr<U>> and std::atomic<std::weak_ptr<U>> are provided for std::shared_ptr and std::weak_ptr.
See std::atomic<std::shared_ptr> and std::atomic<std::weak_ptr> for details. 
(since C++20) 
[edit] Specializations for integral types
When instantiated with one of the following integral types, std::atomic
provides additional atomic operations appropriate to integral types such as fetch_add
, fetch_sub
, fetch_and
, fetch_or
, fetch_xor
:
 The character types char, char8_t(since C++20), char16_t, char32_t, and wchar_t;
 The standard signed integer types: signed char, short, int, long, and long long;
 The standard unsigned integer types: unsigned char, unsigned short, unsigned int, unsigned long, and unsigned long long;
 Any additional integral types needed by the typedefs in the header <cstdint>.
Additionally, the resulting std::atomic<Integral>
specialization has standard layout, a trivial default constructor,(until C++20) and a trivial destructor. Signed integer arithmetic is defined to use two's complement; there are no undefined results.
Specializations for floatingpoint typesWhen instantiated with one of the cvunqualified floatingpoint types (float, double, long double and cvunqualified extended floatingpoint types(since C++23)), Additionally, the resulting No operations result in undefined behavior even if the result is not representable in the floatingpoint type. The floatingpoint environment in effect may be different from the calling thread's floatingpoint environment. 
(since C++20) 
[edit] Member types
Member type  Definition 
value_type

T (regardless of whether specialized or not)

difference_type

value_type (only for atomic<Integral> and atomic<Floating> (since C++20) specializations)std::ptrdiff_t (only for std::atomic<U*> specializations)

difference_type
is not defined in the primary std::atomic
template or in the partial specializations for std::shared_ptr and std::weak_ptr.
[edit] Member functions
constructs an atomic object (public member function)  
stores a value into an atomic object (public member function)  
checks if the atomic object is lockfree (public member function)  
atomically replaces the value of the atomic object with a nonatomic argument (public member function)  
atomically obtains the value of the atomic object (public member function)  
loads a value from an atomic object (public member function)  
atomically replaces the value of the atomic object and obtains the value held previously (public member function)  
atomically compares the value of the atomic object with nonatomic argument and performs atomic exchange if equal or atomic load if not (public member function)  
(C++20) 
blocks the thread until notified and the atomic value changes (public member function) 
(C++20) 
notifies at least one thread waiting on the atomic object (public member function) 
(C++20) 
notifies all threads blocked waiting on the atomic object (public member function) 
Constants  
[static] (C++17) 
indicates that the type is always lockfree (public static member constant) 
[edit] Specialized member functions
Specialized for integral, floatingpoint(since C++20) and pointer types  
atomically adds the argument to the value stored in the atomic object and obtains the value held previously (public member function)  
atomically subtracts the argument from the value stored in the atomic object and obtains the value held previously (public member function)  
adds to or subtracts from the atomic value (public member function)  
Specialized for integral and pointer types only  
(C++26) 
atomically performs std::max between the argument and the value of the atomic object and obtains the value held previously (public member function) 
(C++26) 
atomically performs std::min between the argument and the value of the atomic object and obtains the value held previously (public member function) 
increments or decrements the atomic value by one (public member function)  
Specialized for integral types only  
atomically performs bitwise AND between the argument and the value of the atomic object and obtains the value held previously (public member function)  
atomically performs bitwise OR between the argument and the value of the atomic object and obtains the value held previously (public member function)  
atomically performs bitwise XOR between the argument and the value of the atomic object and obtains the value held previously (public member function)  
performs bitwise AND, OR, XOR with the atomic value (public member function) 
[edit] Type aliases
Type aliases are provided for bool and all integral types listed above, as follows:
Aliases for all
 
atomic_bool (C++11) 
std::atomic<bool> (typedef) 
atomic_char (C++11) 
std::atomic<char> (typedef) 
atomic_schar (C++11) 
std::atomic<signed char> (typedef) 
atomic_uchar (C++11) 
std::atomic<unsigned char> (typedef) 
atomic_short (C++11) 
std::atomic<short> (typedef) 
atomic_ushort (C++11) 
std::atomic<unsigned short> (typedef) 
atomic_int (C++11) 
std::atomic<int> (typedef) 
atomic_uint (C++11) 
std::atomic<unsigned int> (typedef) 
atomic_long (C++11) 
std::atomic<long> (typedef) 
atomic_ulong (C++11) 
std::atomic<unsigned long> (typedef) 
atomic_llong (C++11) 
std::atomic<long long> (typedef) 
atomic_ullong (C++11) 
std::atomic<unsigned long long> (typedef) 
atomic_char8_t (C++20) 
std::atomic<char8_t> (typedef) 
atomic_char16_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<char16_t> (typedef) 
atomic_char32_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<char32_t> (typedef) 
atomic_wchar_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<wchar_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int8_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::int8_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint8_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::uint8_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int16_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::int16_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint16_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::uint16_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int32_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::int32_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint32_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::uint32_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int64_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::int64_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint64_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::uint64_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int_least8_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::int_least8_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint_least8_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uint_least8_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int_least16_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::int_least16_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint_least16_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uint_least16_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int_least32_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::int_least32_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint_least32_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uint_least32_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int_least64_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::int_least64_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint_least64_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uint_least64_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int_fast8_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::int_fast8_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint_fast8_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uint_fast8_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int_fast16_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::int_fast16_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint_fast16_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uint_fast16_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int_fast32_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::int_fast32_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint_fast32_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uint_fast32_t> (typedef) 
atomic_int_fast64_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::int_fast64_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uint_fast64_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uint_fast64_t> (typedef) 
atomic_intptr_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::intptr_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uintptr_t (C++11)(optional) 
std::atomic<std::uintptr_t> (typedef) 
atomic_size_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::size_t> (typedef) 
atomic_ptrdiff_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::ptrdiff_t> (typedef) 
atomic_intmax_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::intmax_t> (typedef) 
atomic_uintmax_t (C++11) 
std::atomic<std::uintmax_t> (typedef) 
Aliases for specialpurpose types  
atomic_signed_lock_free (C++20) 
a signed integral atomic type that is lockfree and for which waiting/notifying is most efficient (typedef) 
atomic_unsigned_lock_free (C++20) 
an unsigned integral atomic type that is lockfree and for which waiting/notifying is most efficient (typedef) 
std::atomic_intN_t
, std::atomic_uintN_t
, std::atomic_intptr_t
, and std::atomic_uintptr_t
are defined if and only if std::intN_t
, std::uintN_t
, std::intptr_t, and std::uintptr_t are defined, respectively.

(since C++20) 
[edit] Notes
There are nonmember function template equivalents for all member functions of std::atomic
. Those nonmember functions may be additionally overloaded for types that are not specializations of std::atomic
, but are able to guarantee atomicity. The only such type in the standard library is std::shared_ptr<U>.
_Atomic
is a keyword and used to provide atomic types in C.
Implementations are recommended to ensure that the representation of _Atomic(T)
in C is same as that of std::atomic<T>
in C++ for every possible type T
. The mechanisms used to ensure atomicity and memory ordering should be compatible.
On gcc and clang, some of the functionality described here requires linking against latomic
.
[edit] Example
#include <atomic> #include <iostream> #include <thread> #include <vector> std::atomic_int acnt; int cnt; void f() { for (int n = 0; n < 10000; ++n) { ++acnt; ++cnt; // Note: for this example, relaxed memory order // is sufficient, e.g. acnt.fetch_add(1, std::memory_order_relaxed); } } int main() { { std::vector<std::jthread> pool; for (int n = 0; n < 10; ++n) pool.emplace_back(f); } std::cout << "The atomic counter is " << acnt << '\n' << "The nonatomic counter is " << cnt << '\n'; }
Possible output:
The atomic counter is 100000 The nonatomic counter is 69696
[edit] Defect reports
The following behaviorchanging defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.
DR  Applied to  Behavior as published  Correct behavior 

LWG 2441  C++11  typedefs for atomic versions of optional fixed width integer types were missing 
added 
LWG 3012  C++11  std::atomic<T> was permitted for any T that is trivially copyable but not copyable 
such specializations are forbidden 
LWG 3949  C++17  the wording requiring std::atomic<bool> to have a trivial destructor was accidently dropped in C++17 
added back 
P0558R1  C++11  template argument deduction for some functions for atomic types might accidently fail; invalid pointer operations were provided 
specification was substantially rewritten: member typedefs value_type and difference_type are added

[edit] See also
(C++11) 
the lockfree boolean atomic type (class) 
(C++20) 
atomic shared pointer (class template specialization) 
(C++20) 
atomic weak pointer (class template specialization) 
C documentation for Atomic types
