< cpp‎ | container‎ | multimap
iterator erase( iterator pos );
iterator erase( const_iterator pos );
(2) (since C++11)
iterator erase( iterator first, iterator last );
(until C++11)
iterator erase( const_iterator first, const_iterator last );
(since C++11)
size_type erase( const Key& key );
template< class K >
size_type erase( K&& x );
(5) (since C++23)

Removes specified elements from the container. The order of the remaining equivalent elements is preserved.

1,2) Removes the element at pos.
3) Removes the elements in the range [firstlast), which must be a valid range in *this.
4) Removes all elements with the key equivalent to key.
5) Removes all elements with key that compares equivalent to the value x. This overload participates in overload resolution only if the qualified-id Compare::is_transparent is valid and denotes a type, and neither iterator nor const_iterator is implicitly convertible from K. It allows calling this function without constructing an instance of Key.

References and iterators to the erased elements are invalidated. Other references and iterators are not affected.

The iterator pos must be valid and dereferenceable. Thus the end() iterator (which is valid, but is not dereferenceable) cannot be used as a value for pos.


[edit] Parameters

pos - iterator to the element to remove
first, last - range of elements to remove
key - key value of the elements to remove
x - a value of any type that can be transparently compared with a key denoting the elements to remove

[edit] Return value

1-3) Iterator following the last removed element.
4) Number of elements removed.
5) Number of elements removed.

[edit] Exceptions

1-3) Throws nothing.
4,5) Any exceptions thrown by the Compare object.

[edit] Complexity

Given an instance c of multimap:

1,2) Amortized constant
3) log(c.size()) + std::distance(first, last)
4) log(c.size()) + c.count(key)
5) log(c.size()) + c.count(x)


Feature-test macro Value Std Feature
__cpp_lib_associative_heterogeneous_erasure 202110L (C++23) Heterogeneous erasure in associative containers and unordered associative containers; overload (5)

[edit] Example

#include <map>
#include <iostream>
int main()
    std::multimap<int, std::string> c =
        {1, "one"}, {2, "two"}, {3, "three"},
        {4, "four"}, {5, "five"}, {6, "six"}
    // erase all odd numbers from c
    for (auto it = c.begin(); it != c.end();)
        if (it->first % 2 != 0)
            it = c.erase(it);
    for (auto& p : c)
        std::cout << p.second << ' ';
    std::cout << '\n';


two four six

Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 130 C++98 the return type of overloads (1) and (3) was void (it is not
consistent with the erase() requirement on sequence containers)
corrected to iterator
LWG 371 C++98 the order of equivalent elements that are not
erased was not guaranteed to be preserved
required to be preserved
LWG 2059 C++11 replacing overload (1) with overload (2) introduced new ambiguity added overload (1) back

[edit] See also

clears the contents
(public member function) [edit]