< cpp‎ | container
Defined in header <queue>

    class T,
    class Container = std::deque<T>

> class queue;

The std::queue class is a container adaptor that gives the functionality of a queue - specifically, a FIFO (first-in, first-out) data structure.

The class template acts as a wrapper to the underlying container - only a specific set of functions is provided. The queue pushes the elements on the back of the underlying container and pops them from the front.


[edit] Template parameters

T - The type of the stored elements. The program is ill-formed if T is not the same type as Container::value_type.
Container - The type of the underlying container to use to store the elements. The container must satisfy the requirements of SequenceContainer. Additionally, it must provide the following functions with the usual semantics:

The standard containers std::deque and std::list satisfy these requirements.

[edit] Member types

Member type Definition
container_type Container[edit]
value_type Container::value_type[edit]
size_type Container::size_type[edit]
reference Container::reference[edit]
const_reference Container::const_reference[edit]

[edit] Member objects

Member name Definition
Container c
the underlying container
(protected member object) [edit]

[edit] Member functions

constructs the queue
(public member function) [edit]
destructs the queue
(public member function) [edit]
assigns values to the container adaptor
(public member function) [edit]
Element access
access the first element
(public member function) [edit]
access the last element
(public member function) [edit]
checks whether the container adaptor is empty
(public member function) [edit]
returns the number of elements
(public member function) [edit]
inserts element at the end
(public member function) [edit]
inserts a range of elements at the end
(public member function) [edit]
constructs element in-place at the end
(public member function) [edit]
removes the first element
(public member function) [edit]
swaps the contents
(public member function) [edit]

[edit] Non-member functions

lexicographically compares the values of two queues
(function template) [edit]
specializes the std::swap algorithm
(function template) [edit]

[edit] Helper classes

specializes the std::uses_allocator type trait
(class template specialization) [edit]
formatting support for std::queue
(class template specialization) [edit]

Deduction guides

(since C++17)

[edit] Notes

Feature-test macro Value Std Feature
__cpp_lib_containers_ranges 202202L (C++23) Ranges construction and insertion for containers

[edit] Example

#include <cassert>
#include <iostream>
#include <queue>
int main()
    std::queue<int> q;
    q.push(0); // back pushes 0
    q.push(1); // q = 0 1
    q.push(2); // q = 0 1 2
    q.push(3); // q = 0 1 2 3
    assert(q.front() == 0);
    assert(q.back() == 3);
    assert(q.size() == 4);
    q.pop(); // removes the front element, 0
    assert(q.size() == 3);
    // Print and remove all elements. Note that std::queue does not
    // support begin()/end(), so a range-for-loop cannot be used.
    std::cout << "q: ";
    for (; !q.empty(); q.pop())
        std::cout << q.front() << ' ';
    std::cout << '\n';
    assert(q.size() == 0);


q: 1 2 3

[edit] Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 307 C++98 std::queue did not support containers using proxy
reference types[1] in place of (const) value_type&
LWG 2566 C++98 Missing the requirement for Container::value_type ill-formed if T is not the same type as Container::value_type
  1. Such as containers similar to std::vector<bool> with additional support of pop_front(). The resolution of this DR
    added support of std::vector<bool> for std::stack and std::priority_queue. The changes involving std::queue
    are for maintaining consistency.

[edit] See also

double-ended queue
(class template) [edit]
doubly-linked list
(class template) [edit]