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C++ Standard Library headers

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The interface of C++ standard library is defined by the following collection of headers.

Contents

Concepts library

<concepts> (since C++20) Fundamental library concepts

Utilities library

<cstdlib> General purpose utilities: program control, dynamic memory allocation, random numbers, sort and search
<csignal> Functions and macro constants for signal management
<csetjmp> Macro (and function) that saves (and jumps) to an execution context
<cstdarg> Handling of variable length argument lists
<typeinfo> Runtime type information utilities
<typeindex> (since C++11) std::type_index
<type_traits> (since C++11) Compile-time type information
<bitset> std::bitset class template
<functional> Function objects, Function invocations, Bind operations and Reference wrappers
<utility> Various utility components
<ctime> C-style time/date utilites
<chrono> (since C++11) C++ time utilites
<cstddef> standard macros and typedefs
<initializer_list> (since C++11) std::initializer_list class template
<tuple> (since C++11) std::tuple class template
<any> (since C++17) std::any class
<optional> (since C++17) std::optional class template
<variant> (since C++17) std::variant class template
<compare> (since C++20) Three-way comparison operator support
<version> (since C++20) supplies implementation-dependent library information
Dynamic memory management
<new> Low-level memory management utilities
<memory> Higher level memory management utilities
<scoped_allocator> (since C++11) Nested allocator class
<memory_resource> (since C++17) Polymorphic allocators and memory resources
Numeric limits
<climits> limits of integral types
<cfloat> limits of float types
<cstdint> (since C++11) fixed-size types and limits of other types
<cinttypes> (since C++11) formatting macros , intmax_t and uintmax_t math and conversions
<limits> standardized way to query properties of arithmetic types
Error handling
<exception> Exception handling utilities
<stdexcept> Standard exception objects
<cassert> Conditionally compiled macro that compares its argument to zero
<system_error> (since C++11) defines std::error_code, a platform-dependent error code
<cerrno> Macro containing the last error number
<contract> (since C++20) Contract violation information

Strings library

<cctype> Functions to determine the type contained in character data
<cwctype> Functions to determine the type contained in wide character data
<cstring> various narrow character string handling functions
<cwchar> various wide and multibyte string handling functions
<cuchar> (since C++11) C-style Unicode character conversion functions
<string> std::basic_string class template
<string_view> (since C++17) std::basic_string_view class template
<charconv> (since C++17) std::to_chars and std::from_chars

Containers library

<array> (since C++11) std::array container
<vector> std::vector container
<deque> std::deque container
<list> std::list container
<forward_list> (since C++11) std::forward_list container
<set> std::set and std::multiset associative containers
<map> std::map and std::multimap associative containers
<unordered_set> (since C++11) std::unordered_set and std::unordered_multiset unordered associative containers
<unordered_map> (since C++11) std::unordered_map and std::unordered_multimap unordered associative containers
<stack> std::stack container adaptor
<queue> std::queue and std::priority_queue container adaptors
<span> (since C++20) std::span view

Algorithms library

<algorithm> Algorithms that operate on containers
<execution> (C++17) Predefined execution policies for parallel versions of the algorithms

Iterators library

<iterator> Container iterators

Numerics library

<cmath> Common mathematics functions
<complex> Complex number type
<valarray> Class for representing and manipulating arrays of values
<random> (since C++11) Random number generators and distributions
<numeric> Numeric operations on values in containers
<ratio> (since C++11) Compile-time rational arithmetic
<cfenv> (since C++11) Floating-point environment access functions
<bit> (since C++20) Bit manipulation functions

Input/output library

<iosfwd> forward declarations of all classes in the input/output library
<ios> std::ios_base class, std::basic_ios class template and several typedefs
<istream> std::basic_istream class template and several typedefs
<ostream> std::basic_ostream, std::basic_iostream class templates and several typedefs
<iostream> several standard stream objects
<fstream> std::basic_fstream, std::basic_ifstream, std::basic_ofstream class templates and several typedefs
<sstream> std::basic_stringstream, std::basic_istringstream, std::basic_ostringstream class templates and several typedefs
<syncstream> (since C++20) std::basic_osyncstream, std::basic_syncbuf, and typedefs
<strstream>(deprecated) std::strstream, std::istrstream, std::ostrstream
<iomanip> Helper functions to control the format of input and output
<streambuf> std::basic_streambuf class template
<cstdio> C-style input-output functions

Localization library

<locale> Localization utilities
<clocale> C localization utilities
<codecvt> (since C++11) (deprecated in C++17) Unicode conversion facilities

Regular Expressions library

<regex> (since C++11) Classes, algorithms and iterators to support regular expression processing

Atomic Operations library

<atomic> (since C++11) Atomic operations library

Thread support library

<thread> (since C++11) std::thread class and supporting functions
<mutex> (since C++11) mutual exclusion primitives
<shared_mutex> (since C++14) shared mutual exclusion primitives
<future> (since C++11) primitives for asynchronous computations
<condition_variable> (since C++11) thread waiting conditions

Filesystem library

<filesystem> (since C++17) std::path class and supporting functions

Experimental libraries

Filesystem TS
<experimental/filesystem> (filesystem TS) Filesystem library
Parallelism TS
<experimental/algorithm> (parallelism TS) Non-numeric parallel algorithms
<experimental/execution_policy> (parallelism TS) Execution policies
<experimental/exception_list> (parallelism TS) Parallel exceptions
<experimental/numeric> (parallelism TS) Numeric parallel algorithms
Library Fundamentals TS
<experimental/algorithm> (library fundamentals TS) sample and search
<experimental/any> (library fundamentals TS) any
<experimental/chrono> (library fundamentals TS) Variable templates for type traits
<experimental/deque> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/forward_list> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/future> (library fundamentals TS) promise and packaged_task using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/list> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/functional> (library fundamentals TS) function using polymorphic allocators and searchers
<experimental/map> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/memory> (library fundamentals TS) shared_ptr and weak_ptr with array support
<experimental/memory_resource> (library fundamentals TS) Polymorphic allocators and memory resources
<experimental/optional> (library fundamentals TS) optional
<experimental/ratio> (library fundamentals TS) Variable templates for type traits
<experimental/regex> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/set> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/string> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/string_view> (library fundamentals TS) basic_string_view
<experimental/system_error> (library fundamentals TS) Variable templates for type traits
<experimental/tuple> (library fundamentals TS) Variable templates for type traits and apply
<experimental/type_traits> (library fundamentals TS) Variable templates for type traits and invocation_type
<experimental/unordered_map> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/unordered_set> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
<experimental/utility> (library fundamentals TS) erased_type
<experimental/vector> (library fundamentals TS) Convenience aliases for containers using polymorphic allocators
Concurrency TS
<experimental/atomic> (concurrency TS) atomic_shared_ptr and atomic_weak_ptr
<experimental/barrier> (concurrency TS) barrier and flex_barrier
<experimental/future> (concurrency TS) Extensions for std::future
<experimental/latch> (concurrency TS) latch
Library Fundamentals TS v2
<experimental/algorithm> (library fundamentals TS v2) sample and shuffle
<experimental/array> (library fundamentals TS v2) make_array and to_array
<experimental/deque> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase and erase_if
<experimental/forward_list> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase and erase_if
<experimental/functional> (library fundamentals TS v2) not_fn
<experimental/iterator> (library fundamentals TS v2) ostream_joiner
<experimental/list> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase and erase_if
<experimental/map> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase_if and erase_if
<experimental/memory> (library fundamentals TS v2) observer_ptr
<experimental/numeric> (library fundamentals TS v2) gcd and lcm
<experimental/propagate_const> (library fundamentals TS v2) propagate_const
<experimental/random> (library fundamentals TS v2) randint and reseed
<experimental/set> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase_if and erase_if
<experimental/source_location> (library fundamentals TS v2) source_location
<experimental/string> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase and erase_if
<experimental/type_traits> (library fundamentals TS v2) Metafunctions and detection idiom
<experimental/unordered_map> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase_if and erase_if
<experimental/unordered_set> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase_if and erase_if
<experimental/vector> (library fundamentals TS v2) erase and erase_if
Ranges TS
<experimental/ranges/algorithm> (ranges TS) Algorithms library
<experimental/ranges/concepts> (ranges TS) Concepts library
<experimental/ranges/functional> (ranges TS) Function objects
<experimental/ranges/iterator> (ranges TS) Iterators library
<experimental/ranges/random> (ranges TS) UniformRandomNumberGenerator concept
<experimental/ranges/range> (ranges TS) Ranges library
<experimental/ranges/tuple> (ranges TS) Tagged tuples
<experimental/ranges/type_traits> (ranges TS) Metaprogramming and type traits
<experimental/ranges/utility> (ranges TS) Utility components

[edit] C compatibility headers

For some of the C standard library headers of the form xxx.h, the C++ standard library both includes an identically-named header and another header of the form cxxx (all meaningful cxxx headers are listed above).

With the exception of complex.h , each xxx.h header included in the C++ standard library places in the global namespace each name that the corresponding cxxx header would have placed in the std namespace.

These headers are allowed to also declare the same names in the std namespace, and the corresponding cxxx headers are allowed to also declare the same names in the global namespace: including <cstdlib> definitely provides std::malloc and may also provide ::malloc. Including <stdlib.h> definitely provides ::malloc and may also provide std::malloc. This applies even to functions and function overloads that are not part of C standard library.

<assert.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cassert> is placed in global namespace
<ctype.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cctype> is placed in global namespace
<errno.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cerrno> is placed in global namespace
<fenv.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cfenv> is placed in global namespace
<float.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cfloat> is placed in global namespace
<inttypes.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cinttypes> is placed in global namespace
<limits.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <climits> is placed in global namespace
<locale.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <clocale> is placed in global namespace
<math.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cmath> is placed in global namespace
except for names of mathematical special functions
<setjmp.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <csetjmp> is placed in global namespace
<signal.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <csignal> is placed in global namespace
<stdarg.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cstdarg> is placed in global namespace
<stddef.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cstddef> is placed in global namespace
except for names of std::byte and related functions
<stdint.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cstdint> is placed in global namespace
<stdio.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cstdio> is placed in global namespace
<stdlib.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cstdlib> is placed in global namespace
<string.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cstring> is placed in global namespace
<time.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <ctime> is placed in global namespace
<uchar.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cuchar> is placed in global namespace
<wchar.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cwchar> is placed in global namespace
<wctype.h> (deprecated) behaves as if each name from <cwctype> is placed in global namespace

[edit] Unsupported C headers

The C headers <stdatomic.h>, <stdnoreturn.h>, and <threads.h> are not included in C++ and have no cxxx equivalents.

[edit] Empty C headers

The headers <complex.h>, <ccomplex>, <tgmath.h>, and <ctgmath> do not contain any content from the C standard library and instead merely include other headers from the C++ standard library. The use of all these headers is deprecated in C++.

<ccomplex> (since C++11)(deprecated in C++17)(removed in C++20) simply includes the header <complex>
<complex.h> (deprecated) simply includes the header <complex>
<ctgmath> (since C++11)(deprecated in C++17)(removed in C++20) simply includes the headers <complex> and <cmath>: the overloads equivalent to the contents of the C header tgmath.h are already provided by those headers
<tgmath.h> (deprecated) simply includes the headers <complex> and <cmath>

[edit] Meaningless C headers

The headers <ciso646>, <cstdalign>, and <cstdbool> are meaningless in C++ because the macros they provide in C are language keywords in C++.

<ciso646> (removed in C++20) empty header. The macros that appear in iso646.h in C are keywords in C++
<iso646.h> (deprecated) has no effect
<cstdalign> (since C++11)(deprecated in C++17)(removed in C++20) defines one compatibility macro constant
<stdalign.h> (deprecated) defines one compatibility macro constant
<cstdbool> (since C++11)(deprecated in C++17) (removed in C++20) defines one compatibility macro constant
<stdbool.h> (deprecated) defines one compatibility macro constant

[edit] See also

C documentation for C Standard Library headers