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Standard library header <variant> (C++17)

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This header is part of the general utility library.

Contents

Includes

(C++20)
Three-way comparison operator support[edit]

Classes

(C++17)
a type-safe discriminated union
(class template) [edit]
(C++17)
placeholder type for use as the first alternative in a variant of non-default-constructible types
(class) [edit]
exception thrown on invalid accesses to the value of a variant
(class) [edit]
obtains the size of the variant's list of alternatives at compile time
(class template) (variable template)[edit]
obtains the type of the alternative specified by its index, at compile time
(class template) (alias template)[edit]
hash support for std::variant
(class template specialization) [edit]

Constants

index of the variant in the invalid state
(constant) [edit]

Functions

(C++17)
calls the provided functor with the arguments held by one or more variants
(function template) [edit]
checks if a variant currently holds a given type
(function template) [edit]
reads the value of the variant given the index or the type (if the type is unique), throws on error
(function template) [edit]
(C++17)
obtains a pointer to the value of a pointed-to variant given the index or the type (if unique), returns null on error
(function template) [edit]
(C++17)(C++17)(C++17)(C++17)(C++17)(C++17)(C++20)
compares variant objects as their contained values
(function template) [edit]
specializes the std::swap algorithm
(function template) [edit]

[edit] Synopsis

#include <compare>
 
namespace std {
  // class template variant
  template<class... Types>
    class variant;
 
  // variant helper classes
  template<class T> struct variant_size;                        // not defined
  template<class T> struct variant_size<const T>;
  template<class T>
    inline constexpr size_t variant_size_v = variant_size<T>::value;
 
  template<class... Types>
    struct variant_size<variant<Types...>>;
 
  template<size_t I, class T> struct variant_alternative;       // not defined
  template<size_t I, class T> struct variant_alternative<I, const T>;
  template<size_t I, class T>
    using variant_alternative_t = typename variant_alternative<I, T>::type;
 
  template<size_t I, class... Types>
    struct variant_alternative<I, variant<Types...>>;
 
  inline constexpr size_t variant_npos = -1;
 
  // value access
  template<class T, class... Types>
    constexpr bool holds_alternative(const variant<Types...>&) noexcept;
 
  template<size_t I, class... Types>
    constexpr variant_alternative_t<I, variant<Types...>>& get(variant<Types...>&);
  template<size_t I, class... Types>
    constexpr variant_alternative_t<I, variant<Types...>>&& get(variant<Types...>&&);
  template<size_t I, class... Types>
    constexpr const variant_alternative_t<I, variant<Types...>>&
      get(const variant<Types...>&);
  template<size_t I, class... Types>
    constexpr const variant_alternative_t<I, variant<Types...>>&&
      get(const variant<Types...>&&);
 
  template<class T, class... Types>
    constexpr T& get(variant<Types...>&);
  template<class T, class... Types>
    constexpr T&& get(variant<Types...>&&);
  template<class T, class... Types>
    constexpr const T& get(const variant<Types...>&);
  template<class T, class... Types>
    constexpr const T&& get(const variant<Types...>&&);
 
  template<size_t I, class... Types>
    constexpr add_pointer_t<variant_alternative_t<I, variant<Types...>>>
      get_if(variant<Types...>*) noexcept;
  template<size_t I, class... Types>
    constexpr add_pointer_t<const variant_alternative_t<I, variant<Types...>>>
      get_if(const variant<Types...>*) noexcept;
 
  template<class T, class... Types>
    constexpr add_pointer_t<T>
      get_if(variant<Types...>*) noexcept;
  template<class T, class... Types>
    constexpr add_pointer_t<const T>
      get_if(const variant<Types...>*) noexcept;
 
  // relational operators
  template<class... Types>
    constexpr bool operator==(const variant<Types...>&, const variant<Types...>&);
  template<class... Types>
    constexpr bool operator!=(const variant<Types...>&, const variant<Types...>&);
  template<class... Types>
    constexpr bool operator<(const variant<Types...>&, const variant<Types...>&);
  template<class... Types>
    constexpr bool operator>(const variant<Types...>&, const variant<Types...>&);
  template<class... Types>
    constexpr bool operator<=(const variant<Types...>&, const variant<Types...>&);
  template<class... Types>
    constexpr bool operator>=(const variant<Types...>&, const variant<Types...>&);
  template<class... Types> requires (three_way_comparable<Types> && ...)
    constexpr common_comparison_category_t<compare_three_way_result_t<Types>...>
      operator<=>(const variant<Types...>&, const variant<Types...>&);
 
  // visitation
  template<class Visitor, class... Variants>
    constexpr /* see description */ visit(Visitor&&, Variants&&...);
  template<class R, class Visitor, class... Variants>
    constexpr R visit(Visitor&&, Variants&&...);
 
  // class monostate
  struct monostate;
 
  // monostate relational operators
  constexpr bool operator==(monostate, monostate) noexcept;
  constexpr strong_ordering operator<=>(monostate, monostate) noexcept;
 
  // specialized algorithms
  template<class... Types>
    constexpr void swap(variant<Types...>&,
                        variant<Types...>&) noexcept(/* see description */);
 
  // class bad_variant_access
  class bad_variant_access;
 
  // hash support
  template<class T> struct hash;
  template<class... Types> struct hash<variant<Types...>>;
  template<> struct hash<monostate>;
}
 
// deprecated
namespace std {
  template<class T> struct variant_size<volatile T>;
  template<class T> struct variant_size<const volatile T>;
 
  template<size_t I, class T> struct variant_alternative<I, volatile T>;
  template<size_t I, class T> struct variant_alternative<I, const volatile T>;
}

[edit] Class template std::variant

namespace std {
  template<class... Types>
  class variant {
  public:
    // constructors
    constexpr variant() noexcept(/* see description */);
    constexpr variant(const variant&);
    constexpr variant(variant&&) noexcept(/* see description */);
 
    template<class T>
      constexpr variant(T&&) noexcept(/* see description */);
 
    template<class T, class... Args>
      constexpr explicit variant(in_place_type_t<T>, Args&&...);
    template<class T, class U, class... Args>
      constexpr explicit variant(in_place_type_t<T>, initializer_list<U>, Args&&...);
 
    template<size_t I, class... Args>
      constexpr explicit variant(in_place_index_t<I>, Args&&...);
    template<size_t I, class U, class... Args>
      constexpr explicit variant(in_place_index_t<I>, initializer_list<U>, Args&&...);
 
    // destructor
    constexpr ~variant();
 
    // assignment
    constexpr variant& operator=(const variant&);
    constexpr variant& operator=(variant&&) noexcept(/* see description */);
 
    template<class T> constexpr variant& operator=(T&&) noexcept(/* see description */);
 
    // modifiers
    template<class T, class... Args>
      constexpr T& emplace(Args&&...);
    template<class T, class U, class... Args>
      constexpr T& emplace(initializer_list<U>, Args&&...);
    template<size_t I, class... Args>
      constexpr variant_alternative_t<I, variant<Types...>>& emplace(Args&&...);
    template<size_t I, class U, class... Args>
      constexpr variant_alternative_t<I, variant<Types...>>&
        emplace(initializer_list<U>, Args&&...);
 
    // value status
    constexpr bool valueless_by_exception() const noexcept;
    constexpr size_t index() const noexcept;
 
    // swap
    constexpr void swap(variant&) noexcept(/* see description */);
  };
}

[edit] Class std::monostate

struct monostate{};

[edit] Class std::bad_variant_access

class bad_variant_access : public exception {
public:
  // see [exception] for the specification of the special member functions
  const char* what() const noexcept override;
};