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operator<<(std::basic_ostream)

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | io‎ | basic ostream
 
 
Input/output library
I/O manipulators
C-style I/O
Buffers
(deprecated in C++98)
Streams
Abstractions
File I/O
String I/O
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(deprecated in C++98)
(deprecated in C++98)
(deprecated in C++98)
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Error category interface
(C++11)
 
 
Defined in header <ostream>
basic_ostream and character
(1)
template< class CharT, class Traits>

basic_ostream<CharT,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<CharT,Traits>& os,

                                         CharT ch );
template< class CharT, class Traits>

basic_ostream<CharT,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<CharT,Traits>& os,

                                         char ch );
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        char ch );
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        signed char ch );
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        unsigned char ch );
basic_ostream and character array
(2)
template< class CharT, class Traits >

basic_ostream<CharT,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<CharT,Traits>& os,

                                         const CharT* s );
template< class CharT, class Traits >

basic_ostream<CharT,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<CharT,Traits>& os,

                                         const char* s );
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,  

                                        const char* s );
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        const signed char* s );
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        const unsigned char* s );
basic_ostream rvalue
template< class Ostream, class T >

Ostream&&                   operator<<( Ostream&& os,

                                        const T& value );
(3) (since C++11)
deleted overloads for basic_ostream and UTF character/array
(4) (since C++20)
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        wchar_t ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        char8_t ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        char16_t ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        char32_t ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& os,

                                           char8_t ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& os,

                                           char16_t ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& os,

                                           char32_t ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        const wchar_t* ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        const char8_t* ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        const char16_t* ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<char,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<char,Traits>& os,

                                        const char32_t* ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& os,

                                           const char8_t* ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& os,

                                           const char16_t* ch ) = delete;
template< class Traits >

basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& operator<<( basic_ostream<wchar_t,Traits>& os,

                                           const char32_t* ch ) = delete;

Inserts a character or a character string.

1) Behaves as an FormattedOutputFunction. After constructing and checking the sentry object, inserts the character ch. If the type of the character is not CharT, it is first converted with os.widen(ch). Padding is determined as follows: if os.width()>1, then os.width()-1 copies of os.fill() are added to the output character to form the output character sequence. If (out.flags()&std::ios_base::adjustfield) == std::ios_base::left, the fill characters are placed after the output character, otherwise before. After insertion, os.width(0) is called to cancel the effects of std::setw, if any.
2) Behaves as an FormattedOutputFunction. After constructing and checking the sentry object, inserts successive characters from the character array whose first element is pointed to by s.
  • for the first and third overloads (where CharT matches the type of ch), exactly traits::length(s) characters are inserted.
  • for the second overload, exactly std::char_traits<char>::length(s) characters are inserted.
  • for the last two overloads, exactly traits::length(reinterpret_cast<const char*>(s)) are inserted.

Before insertion, first, all characters are widened using os.widen(), then padding is determined as follows: if the number of characters to insert is less than os.width(), then enough copies of os.fill() are added to the character sequence to make its length equal os.width(). If (out.flags()&std::ios_base::adjustfield) == std::ios_base::left, the fill characters are added at the end of the output sequence, otherwise they are added before the output sequence. After insertion, width(0) is called to cancel the effects of std::setw, if any.

The behavior is undefined if s is a null pointer.
3) Calls the appropriate insertion operator, given an rvalue reference to an output stream object (equivalent to os << value). This overload only participates in overload resolution if the expression os << value is well-formed and Ostream is a class type publicly and unambiguously derived from std::ios_base.
4) Overloads that accept char16_t, char32_t etc (or null terminated sequence thereof) are deleted: std::cout << u'X' is not allowed. Previously, these would print an integer or pointer value.

Contents

[edit] Parameters

os - output stream to insert data to
ch - reference to a character to insert
s - pointer to a character string to insert

[edit] Return value

1-2) os
3) std::move(os)

[edit] Notes

Before LWG#1203, code such as (std::ostringstream() << 1.2).str() does not compile.

[edit] Example

#include <iostream>
#include <fstream>
 
int main()
{
    std::cout << "Hello, world" // the const char* overload
              << '\n';          // the char overload
    std::ofstream("test.txt") << 1.2; // rvalue overload
}

Output:

Hello, world

[edit] Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 1203 C++11 overload for rvalue stream returned lvalue reference to the base class returns rvalue reference to the derived class
LWG 2534 C++11 overload for rvalue stream was not constrained constrained

[edit] See also

inserts formatted data
(public member function) [edit]
widens characters
(public member function of std::basic_ios<CharT,Traits>) [edit]