< cpp‎ | io‎ | basic ostream
Defined in header <ostream>
template< class... Args >
  void print( std::ostream& os, std::format_string<Args...> fmt, Args&&... args );
(since C++23)

Formats args according to the format string fmt, and inserts the result into os stream.

If the ordinary literal encoding is UTF-8, equivalent to:
std::vprint_unicode(os, fmt.get(), std::make_format_args(std::forward<Args>(args)...));

Otherwise, equivalent to:

std::vprint_nonunicode(os, fmt.get(), std::make_format_args(std::forward<Args>(args)...));

The behavior is undefined if std::formatter<Ti, char> does not meet the BasicFormatter requirements for any Ti in Args (as required by std::make_format_args).


[edit] Parameters

os - output stream to insert data into
fmt - an object that represents the format string. The format string consists of
  • ordinary characters (except { and }), which are copied unchanged to the output,
  • escape sequences {{ and }}, which are replaced with { and } respectively in the output, and
  • replacement fields.

Each replacement field has the following format:

{ arg-id (optional) } (1)
{ arg-id (optional) : format-spec } (2)
1) replacement field without a format specification
2) replacement field with a format specification
arg-id - specifies the index of the argument in args whose value is to be used for formatting; if it is omitted, the arguments are used in order.

The arg-ids in a format string must all be present or all be omitted. Mixing manual and automatic indexing is an error.

format-spec - the format specification defined by the std::formatter specialization for the corresponding argument.
  • For basic types and standard string types, the format specification is interpreted as standard format specification.
  • For chrono types, the format specification is interpreted as chrono format specification.
  • For other formattable types, the format specification is determined by user-defined formatter specializations.
args... - arguments to be formatted

[edit] Return value


[edit] Exceptions

[edit] Notes

Feature-test macro Value Std Comment
__cpp_lib_print 202207L (C++23) Formatted output
__cpp_lib_format 202207L (C++23) Exposing std::basic_format_string

[edit] Example

A link to test: Compiler Explorer

#include <array>
#include <cctype>
#include <format>
#include <ranges>
#include <numbers>
#include <iostream>
int main()
    std::array<char, 24> buf;
    std::format_to(buf.begin(), "{:.15f}", std::numbers::sqrt2);
    unsigned num{}, sum{};
    auto v = buf
           | std::views::filter(isdigit)
           | std::views::transform([](char x) { return x - '0'; })
           | std::views::take_while([&sum](char) { return sum < 42; })
    for (auto n : v) {
        sum += n;
#ifdef __cpp_lib_print
        "√2 = {}...\n"
        "The sum of its first {} digits is {}{}\n",
        std::numbers::sqrt2, num, sum, '.'
    std::cout <<
        "√2 = {}...\n"
        "The sum of its first {} digits is {}{}\n",
        std::numbers::sqrt2, num, sum, '.'


√2 = 1.4142135623730951...
The sum of its first 13 digits is 42.

[edit] See also

outputs formatted representation of the arguments with appended '\n'
(function template) [edit]
prints to stdout or a file stream using formatted representation of the arguments
(function template) [edit]
stores formatted representation of the arguments in a new string
(function template) [edit]