< cpp‎ | ranges
Ranges library
Range access
Range conversions

Range primitives

Dangling iterator handling
Range concepts

Range factories
Range adaptors
Range generators
Range adaptor objects
Range adaptor closure objects
Helper items
(until C++23)(C++23)

Defined in header <ranges>
Defined in header <iterator>
inline namespace /* unspecified */ {

    inline constexpr /* unspecified */ cend = /* unspecified */;

(since C++20)
(customization point object)
Call signature
template< class T >

    requires /* see below */

constexpr /* see below */ auto cend( T&& t );
(since C++20)

Returns a sentinel for the constant iterator(since C++23) indicating the end of a const-qualified(until C++23) range.


Let CT be

  • const std::remove_reference_t<T>& if the argument is an lvalue (i.e. T is an lvalue reference type),
  • const T otherwise.

A call to ranges::cend is expression-equivalent to ranges::end(static_cast<CT&&>(t)).

(until C++23)

If the argument is an lvalue or ranges::enable_borrowed_range<std::remove_cv_t<T>> is true, then a call to ranges::cend is expression-equivalent to:

In all other cases, a call to ranges::cend is ill-formed, which can result in substitution failure when the call appears in the immediate context of a template instantiation.

(since C++23)

If ranges::cend(e) is valid for an expression e, where decltype((e)) is T, then CT models std::ranges::range, and(until C++23) std::sentinel_for<S, I> is true in all cases, where S is decltype(ranges::cend(e)), and I is decltype(ranges::cbegin(e)). Additionally, S models constant-iterator if it models input_iterator.(since C++23)

Customization point objects

The name ranges::cend denotes a customization point object, which is a const function object of a literal semiregular class type. For exposition purposes, the cv-unqualified version of its type is denoted as __cend_fn.

All instances of __cend_fn are equal. The effects of invoking different instances of type __cend_fn on the same arguments are equivalent, regardless of whether the expression denoting the instance is an lvalue or rvalue, and is const-qualified or not (however, a volatile-qualified instance is not required to be invocable). Thus, ranges::cend can be copied freely and its copies can be used interchangeably.

Given a set of types Args..., if std::declval<Args>()... meet the requirements for arguments to ranges::cend above, __cend_fn models

Otherwise, no function call operator of __cend_fn participates in overload resolution.

[edit] Example

#include <algorithm>
#include <cassert>
#include <ranges>
#include <vector>
int main()
    std::vector vec{3, 1, 4};
    int arr[]{5, 10, 15};
    assert(std::ranges::find(vec, 5) == std::ranges::cend(vec));
    assert(std::ranges::find(arr, 5) != std::ranges::cend(arr));

[edit] See also

returns a sentinel indicating the end of a range
(customization point object)[edit]
returns an iterator to the end of a container or array
(function template) [edit]