< cpp‎ | ranges
Defined in header <ranges>
inline namespace /*unspecified*/ {

    inline constexpr /*unspecified*/ end = /*unspecified*/;

(since C++20)
(customization point object)
Call signature
template< class T >

    requires /* see below */

constexpr std::sentinel_for<ranges::iterator_t<T>> auto end(T&& t);

Returns a sentinel indicating the end of a range.


Let t be an object of type T. If the argument is an lvalue or ranges::enable_borrowed_range<std::remove_cv_t<T>> is true, then a call to ranges::end is expression-equivalent to:

  1. t + std::extent_v<T> if T is an array type of known bound.
    If std::remove_all_extents_t<T> is incomplete, then ranges::end(std::forward<T>(t)) is ill-formed, no diagnostic required.
  2. Otherwise, std::forward<T>(t).end(), if that expression is valid, and its return type models std::sentinel_for<ranges::iterator_t<T>>.
  3. Otherwise, end(std::forward<T>(t)), if T is a class or enumeration type, the aforementioned unqualified call is valid, and its return type models std::sentinel_for<ranges::iterator_t<T>>, where the overload resolution is performed with the following candidates:

In all other cases, a call to ranges::end is ill-formed, which can result in substitution failure when ranges::end(t) appears in the immediate context of a template instantiation.


[edit] Expression-equivalent

Expression e is expression-equivalent to expression f, if e and f have the same effects, either are both potentially-throwing or are both not potentially-throwing (i.e. noexcept(e) == noexcept(f)), and either are both constant subexpressions or are both not constant subexpressions.

[edit] Customization point objects

The name ranges::end denotes a customization point object, which is a const function object of a literal semiregular class type (denoted, for exposition purposes, as end_ftor). All instances of end_ftor are equal. Thus, ranges::end can be copied freely and its copies can be used interchangeably.

Given a set of types Args..., if std::declval<Args>()... meet the requirements for arguments to ranges::end above, end_ftor will satisfy std::invocable<const end_ftor&, Args...>. Otherwise, no function call operator of end_ftor participates in overload resolution.

[edit] Notes

If the argument is an rvalue (i.e. T is an object type) and ranges::enable_borrowed_range<std::remove_cv_t<T>> is false, or if it is of an array type of unknown bound, the call to ranges::end is ill-formed, which also results in substitution failure.

If ranges::end(std::forward<T>(t)) is valid, then decltype(ranges::end(std::forward<T>(t))) and decltype(ranges::begin(std::forward<T>(t))) model std::sentinel_for in all cases, while T modeling std::ranges::range.

[edit] Example

#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <ranges>
#include <vector>
int main() 
    std::vector<int> v = { 3, 1, 4 };
    namespace ranges = std::ranges;
    if (ranges::find(v, 5) != ranges::end(v)) {
        std::cout << "found a 5 in vector v!\n";
    int a[] = { 5, 10, 15 };
    if (ranges::find(a, 5) != ranges::end(a)) {
        std::cout << "found a 5 in array a!\n";


found a 5 in array a!

[edit] See also

returns a sentinel indicating the end of a read-only range
(customization point object) [edit]
returns an iterator to the beginning of a range
(customization point object) [edit]
returns an iterator to the end of a container or array
(function template) [edit]