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std::condition_variable

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< cpp‎ | thread
 
 
Concurrency support library
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(C++11)  
Generic lock management
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Condition variables
condition_variable
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Atomic types
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Initialization of atomic types
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Defined in header <condition_variable>
class condition_variable;
(since C++11)

std::condition_variable is a synchronization primitive used with a std::mutex to block one or more threads until another thread both modifies a shared variable (the condition) and notifies the std::condition_variable.

The thread that intends to modify the shared variable must:

  1. Acquire a std::mutex (typically via std::lock_guard).
  2. Modify the shared variable while the lock is owned.
  3. Call notify_one or notify_all on the std::condition_variable (can be done after releasing the lock).

Even if the shared variable is atomic, it must be modified while owning the mutex to correctly publish the modification to the waiting thread.

Any thread that intends to wait on a std::condition_variable must:

  1. Acquire a std::unique_lock<std::mutex> on the mutex used to protect the shared variable.
  2. Do one of the following:
  1. Check the condition, in case it was already updated and notified.
  2. Call wait, wait_for, or wait_until on the std::condition_variable (atomically releases the mutex and suspends thread execution until the condition variable is notified, a timeout expires, or a spurious wakeup occurs, then atomically acquires the mutex before returning).
  3. Check the condition and resume waiting if not satisfied.
or:
  1. Use the predicated overload of wait, wait_for, and wait_until, which performs the same three steps.

std::condition_variable works only with std::unique_lock<std::mutex>, which allows for maximal efficiency on some platforms. std::condition_variable_any provides a condition variable that works with any BasicLockable object, such as std::shared_lock.

Condition variables permit concurrent invocation of the wait, wait_for, wait_until, notify_one and notify_all member functions.

The class std::condition_variable is a StandardLayoutType. It is not CopyConstructible, MoveConstructible, CopyAssignable, or MoveAssignable.

Contents

[edit] Nested types

Name Definition
native_handle_type implementation-defined

[edit] Member functions

constructs the object
(public member function) [edit]
destructs the object
(public member function) [edit]
operator=
[deleted]
not copy-assignable
(public member function) [edit]
Notification
notifies one waiting thread
(public member function) [edit]
notifies all waiting threads
(public member function) [edit]
Waiting
blocks the current thread until the condition variable is awakened
(public member function) [edit]
blocks the current thread until the condition variable is awakened or after the specified timeout duration
(public member function) [edit]
blocks the current thread until the condition variable is awakened or until specified time point has been reached
(public member function) [edit]
Native handle
returns the native handle
(public member function) [edit]

[edit] Example

std::condition_variable is used in combination with a std::mutex to facilitate inter-thread communication.

#include <condition_variable>
#include <iostream>
#include <mutex>
#include <string>
#include <thread>
 
std::mutex m;
std::condition_variable cv;
std::string data;
bool ready = false;
bool processed = false;
 
void worker_thread()
{
    // wait until main() sends data
    std::unique_lock lk(m);
    cv.wait(lk, []{ return ready; });
 
    // after the wait, we own the lock
    std::cout << "Worker thread is processing data\n";
    data += " after processing";
 
    // send data back to main()
    processed = true;
    std::cout << "Worker thread signals data processing completed\n";
 
    // manual unlocking is done before notifying, to avoid waking up
    // the waiting thread only to block again (see notify_one for details)
    lk.unlock();
    cv.notify_one();
}
 
int main()
{
    std::thread worker(worker_thread);
 
    data = "Example data";
    // send data to the worker thread
    {
        std::lock_guard lk(m);
        ready = true;
        std::cout << "main() signals data ready for processing\n";
    }
    cv.notify_one();
 
    // wait for the worker
    {
        std::unique_lock lk(m);
        cv.wait(lk, []{ return processed; });
    }
    std::cout << "Back in main(), data = " << data << '\n';
 
    worker.join();
}

Output:

main() signals data ready for processing
Worker thread is processing data
Worker thread signals data processing completed
Back in main(), data = Example data after processing

[edit] See also

provides a condition variable associated with any lock type
(class) [edit]
(C++11)
provides basic mutual exclusion facility
(class) [edit]
implements a strictly scope-based mutex ownership wrapper
(class template) [edit]
implements movable mutex ownership wrapper
(class template) [edit]