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std::jthread::jthread

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | thread‎ | jthread
 
 
Concurrency support library
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jthread() noexcept;
(1) (since C++20)
jthread( jthread&& other ) noexcept;
(2) (since C++20)
template< class F, class... Args >
explicit jthread( F&& f, Args&&... args );
(3) (since C++20)
jthread( const jthread& ) = delete;
(4) (since C++20)

Constructs new std::jthread object.

1) Creates new std::jthread object which does not represent a thread.
2) Move constructor. Constructs the std::jthread object to represent the thread of execution that was represented by other. After this call other no longer represents a thread of execution.
3) Creates new std::jthread object and associates it with a thread of execution.

The new thread of execution starts executing:

std::invoke(decay-copy(std::forward<F>(f)), get_stop_token(),
            decay-copy(std::forward<Args>(args))...)
(until C++23)

std::invoke(auto(std::forward<F>(f)), get_stop_token(),
            auto(std::forward<Args>(args))...)

(since C++23)

if the expression above is well-formed, otherwise starts executing:

std::invoke(decay-copy(std::forward<F>(f)),
            decay-copy(std::forward<Args>(args))...)
.
(until C++23)

std::invoke(auto(std::forward<F>(f)),
            auto(std::forward<Args>(args))...)
.

(since C++23)
The calls of decay-copy are evaluated(until C++23)The values produced by auto are materialized(since C++23) in the current thread, so that any exceptions thrown during evaluation and copying/moving of the arguments are thrown in the current thread, without starting the new thread.
These overloads participate in overload resolution only if std::remove_cvref_t<F> is not the same type as std::jthread.
If any of the following is false, the program is ill-formed:
The completion of the invocation of the constructor synchronizes with the beginning of the invocation of the copy of f on the new thread of execution.
4) The copy constructor is deleted; threads are not copyable. No two std::jthread objects may represent the same thread of execution.

Contents

[edit] Parameters

other - another std::jthread object to construct this std::jthread object with
f - Callable object to execute in the new thread
args - arguments to pass to the new function

[edit] Postconditions

1) get_id() equal to std::jthread::id() (i.e. joinable() returns false) and get_stop_source().stop_possible() is false.
2) other.get_id() equal to std::jthread::id() and get_id() returns the value of other.get_id() prior to the start of construction.
3) get_id() not equal to std::jthread::id() (i.e. joinable() returns true), and get_stop_source().stop_possible() is true.

[edit] Exceptions

3) std::system_error if the thread could not be started. The exception may represent the error condition std::errc::resource_unavailable_try_again or another implementation-specific error condition.

[edit] Notes

The arguments to the thread function are moved or copied by value. If a reference argument needs to be passed to the thread function, it has to be wrapped (e.g. with std::ref or std::cref).

Any return value from the function is ignored. If the function throws an exception, std::terminate is called. In order to pass return values or exceptions back to the calling thread, std::promise or std::async may be used.

[edit] Example

#include <chrono>
#include <iostream>
#include <thread>
#include <utility>
 
using namespace std::literals;
 
void f1(int n)
{
    for (int i = 0; i < 5; ++i)
    {
        std::cout << "Thread 1 executing\n";
        ++n;
        std::this_thread::sleep_for(10ms);
    }
}
 
void f2(int& n)
{
    for (int i = 0; i < 5; ++i)
    {
        std::cout << "Thread 2 executing\n";
        ++n;
        std::this_thread::sleep_for(10ms);
    }
}
 
class foo
{
public:
    void bar()
    {
        for (int i = 0; i < 5; ++i)
        {
            std::cout << "Thread 3 executing\n";
            ++n;
            std::this_thread::sleep_for(10ms);
        }
    }
    int n = 0;
};
 
class baz
{
public:
    void operator()()
    {
        for (int i = 0; i < 5; ++i)
        {
            std::cout << "Thread 4 executing\n";
            ++n;
            std::this_thread::sleep_for(10ms);
        }
    }
    int n = 0;
};
 
int main()
{
    int n = 0;
    foo f;
    baz b;
    std::jthread t0; // t0 is not a thread
    std::jthread t1(f1, n + 1); // pass by value
    std::jthread t2a(f2, std::ref(n)); // pass by reference
    std::jthread t2b(std::move(t2a)); // t2b is now running f2(). t2a is no longer a thread
    std::jthread t3(&foo::bar, &f); // t3 runs foo::bar() on object f
    std::jthread t4(b); // t4 runs baz::operator() on a copy of object b
    t1.join();
    t2b.join();
    t3.join();
    std::cout << "Final value of n is " << n << '\n';
    std::cout << "Final value of f.n (foo::n) is " << f.n << '\n';
    std::cout << "Final value of b.n (baz::n) is " << b.n << '\n';
    // t4 joins on destruction
}

Possible output:

Thread 2 executing
Thread 1 executing
Thread 4 executing
Thread 3 executing
Thread 3 executing
Thread 4 executing
Thread 2 executing
Thread 1 executing
Thread 3 executing
Thread 1 executing
Thread 4 executing
Thread 2 executing
Thread 3 executing
Thread 1 executing
Thread 4 executing
Thread 2 executing
Thread 3 executing
Thread 1 executing
Thread 4 executing
Thread 2 executing
Final value of n is 5
Final value of f.n (foo::n) is 5
Final value of b.n (bar::n) is 0

[edit] Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 3476 C++20 overload (3) directly required (the decayed types of)
F and the argument types to be move constructible
removed these
requirements[1]
  1. The move-constructibility is already indirectly required by std::is_constructible_v.

[edit] See also

constructs new thread object
(public member function of std::thread) [edit]
C documentation for thrd_create