< cpp‎ | utility
Utilities library
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Defined in header <utility>
template< class T >
typename std::add_rvalue_reference<T>::type declval() noexcept;
(since C++11)

Converts any type T to a reference type, making it possible to use member functions in the operand of the decltype specifier without the need to go through constructors.

std::declval is commonly used in templates where acceptable template parameters may have no constructor in common, but have the same member function whose return type is needed.

Note that std::declval can only be used in unevaluated contexts and is not required to be defined; it is an error to evaluate an expression that contains this function. Formally, the program is ill-formed if this function is odr-used.


[edit] Parameters


[edit] Return value

Cannot be called and thus never returns a value. The return type is T&& unless T is (possibly cv-qualified) void, in which case the return type is T.

[edit] Possible implementation

template<typename T>
typename std::add_rvalue_reference<T>::type declval() noexcept
    static_assert(false, "declval not allowed in an evaluated context");

[edit] Example

#include <iostream>
#include <utility>
struct Default
    int foo() const { return 1; }
struct NonDefault
    NonDefault() = delete;
    int foo() const { return 1; }
int main()
    decltype(Default().foo()) n1 = 1;                   // type of n1 is int
//  decltype(NonDefault().foo()) n2 = n1;               // error: no default constructor
    decltype(std::declval<NonDefault>().foo()) n2 = n1; // type of n2 is int
    std::cout << "n1 = " << n1 << '\n'
              << "n2 = " << n2 << '\n';


n1 = 1
n2 = 1

[edit] See also

decltype specifier(C++11) obtains the type of an expression or an entity[edit]
(C++11)(removed in C++20)(C++17)
deduces the result type of invoking a callable object with a set of arguments
(class template) [edit]