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std::unexpected

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | utility‎ | expected
 
 
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Defined in header <expected>
template< class E >
class unexpected;
(since C++23)

The class template std::unexpected represents an unexpected value stored in std::expected. In particular, std::expected has constructors with std::unexpected as a single argument, which creates an expected object that contains an unexpected value.

A program is ill-formed if it instantiates an unexpected with a non-object type, an array type, a specialization of std::unexpected, or a cv-qualified type.

Contents

[edit] Template parameters

E - the type of the unexpected value. The type must not be an array type, a non-object type, a specialization of std::unexpected, or a cv-qualified type.

[edit] Member functions

constructs the unexpected object
(public member function)
(destructor)
(implicitly declared) (C++23)
destroys the unexpected object, along with the stored value
(public member function)
operator=
(implicitly declared) (C++23)
assigns the stored value
(public member function)
(C++23)
accesses the stored value
(public member function)
(C++23)
swaps the stored value
(public member function)

[edit] Non-member functions

compares the stored value
(function template)
specializes the std::swap algorithm
(function template)

std::unexpected::unexpected

constexpr unexpected( const unexpected& ) = default;
(1) (since C++23)
constexpr unexpected( unexpected&& ) = default;
(2) (since C++23)
template< class Err = E >
constexpr explicit unexpected( Err&& e );
(3) (since C++23)
template< class... Args >
constexpr explicit unexpected( std::in_place_t, Args&&... args );
(4) (since C++23)
template< class U, class... Args >

constexpr explicit unexpected( std::in_place_t,

                               std::initializer_list<U> il, Args&&... args );
(5) (since C++23)

Constructs a std::unexpected object.

1,2) Copy/move constructor. Copies or moves the stored value, respectively.
3) Constructs the stored value, as if by direct-initializing a value of type E from std::forward<Err>(e).
4) Constructs the stored value, as if by direct-initializing a value of type E from the arguments std::forward<Args>(args)....
5) Constructs the stored value, as if by direct-initializing a value of type E from the arguments il, std::forward<Args>(args)....

Parameters

e - value with which to initialize the contained value
args... - arguments with which to initialize the contained value
il - initializer list with which to initialize the contained value

Exceptions

Throws any exception thrown by the constructor of E.

std::unexpected::error

constexpr const E& error() const& noexcept;

constexpr E& error() & noexcept;
constexpr const E&& error() const&& noexcept;

constexpr E&& error() && noexcept;
(since C++23)

Returns a reference to the stored value.

std::unexpected::swap

constexpr void swap( unexpected& other ) noexcept(std::is_nothrow_swappable_v<E>);
(since C++23)

Swaps the stored values, as if by using std::swap; swap(error(), other.error());.

The program is ill-formed if std::is_swappable_v<E> is false.

operator==(std::unexpected)

template< class E2 >
friend constexpr bool operator==( unexpected& x, std::unexpected<E2>& y );
(since C++23)

Compares the stored values, as if by return x.error() == y.error().

If the expression x.error() == e.error() is not well-formed, or if its result is not convertible to bool, the program is ill-formed.

This function is not visible to ordinary unqualified or qualified lookup, and can only be found by argument-dependent lookup when std::unexpected<E> is an associated class of the arguments.

swap(std::unexpected)

friend constexpr void
swap( unexpected& x, unexpected& y ) noexcept(noexcept(x.swap(y)));
(since C++23)

Equivalent to x.swap(y).

This overload participates in overload resolution only if std::is_swappable_v<E> is true.

This function is not visible to ordinary unqualified or qualified lookup, and can only be found by argument-dependent lookup when std::unexpected<E> is an associated class of the arguments.

[edit] Deduction guides

template< class E >
unexpected(E) -> unexpected<E>;
(since C++23)

The deduction guide is provided for unexpected to allow deduction from the constructor argument.

[edit] Notes

Prior to C++17, the name std::unexpected denoted the function called by the C++ runtime when a dynamic exception specification was violated.

[edit] Example

#include <expected>
#include <iostream>
 
int main()
{
    std::expected<double, int> ex = std::unexpected(3);
 
    if (!ex)
        std::cout << "ex contains an error value\n";
 
    if (ex == std::unexpected(3))
        std::cout << "The error value is equal to 3\n";
}

Output:

ex contains an error value
The error value is equal to 3

[edit] Example with enum

#include <expected>
#include <iostream>
 
enum class error
{
    compile_time_error,
    runtime_error
};
 
[[nodiscard]] auto unexpected_runtime_error() -> std::expected<int, error>
{
    return std::unexpected(error::runtime_error);
}
 
int main()
{
    const auto e = unexpected_runtime_error();
 
    e.and_then([](const auto& e) -> std::expected<int, error> {
         std::cout << "and_then: " << int(e); // not printed
         return {};
     }).or_else([](const auto& e) -> std::expected<int, error> {
        std::cout << "or_else: " << int(e); // prints this line
        return {};
    });
 
    return 0;
}

Output:

or_else: 1

[edit] See also

constructs the expected object
(public member function) [edit]
compares expected objects
(function template) [edit]