< cpp‎ | utility‎ | format
Utilities library
Language support
Type support (basic types, RTTI)
Library feature-test macros (C++20)
Dynamic memory management
Program utilities
Coroutine support (C++20)
Variadic functions
Debugging support
Three-way comparison
General utilities
Date and time
Function objects
Formatting library (C++20)
Relational operators (deprecated in C++20)
Integer comparison functions
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Elementary string conversions

Formatting library
Standard format specification
Formatting functions
Format strings
Formatting concepts
Formatting arguments
(C++20) (deprecated in C++26)
Format error
Defined in header <format>
template< class CharT, std::formattable<CharT>... Ts >
struct formatter</* pair-or-tuple */<Ts...>, CharT>;
(since C++23)

The template specialization of std::formatter for the std::pair and std::tuple allows users to convert a pair or a tuple to its textual representation as a collection of elements using formatting functions.

The exposition-only name /* pair-or-tuple */ denotes either class template std::pair or std::tuple.

This specialization meets the Formatter requirements if (std::formattable<const Ts, CharT> && ...) is true. It always meets the BasicFormatter requirements.


[edit] Format specification

The syntax of tuple-format-spec is:

tuple-fill-and-align (optional) width (optional) tuple-type (optional)

The tuple-fill-and-align is interpreted the same way as a fill-and-align except that the fill in tuple-fill-and-align is any character other than {, }, or :.

The width is described in standard format width specification.

The tuple-type changes the way a tuple is formatted, with certain options only valid with certain argument types.

The available tuple presentation types are:

  • m: Indicates that both opening and closing brackets should be "" while the separator should be ": ".
  • If m is chosen as the tuple-type, the program is ill-formed unless sizeof...(Ts) == 2 is true.
  • n: Indicates that separator, opening and closing brackets should be "".

[edit] Member objects

Member name Definition
underlying_ (private) tuple of underlying formatters of type std::tuple<std::formatter<std::remove_cvref_t<Ts>, CharT>...>
(exposition-only member object*)
separator_ (private) a string representing the separator of the tuple formatted result (defaults to ", ")
(exposition-only member object*)
opening-bracket_ (private) a string representing the opening bracket of the tuple formatted result (defaults to "(")
(exposition-only member object*)
closing-bracket_ (private) a string representing the closing bracket of the tuple formatted result (defaults to ")")
(exposition-only member object*)

[edit] Member functions

sets a specified separator for the tuple formatted result
(public member function)
sets a specified opening and closing brackets for the tuple formatted result
(public member function)
parses the format specifier as specified by tuple-format-spec
(public member function)
writes the tuple formatted output as specified by tuple-format-spec
(public member function)


constexpr void set_separator( std::basic_string_view<CharT> sep ) noexcept;

Assigns sep to separator_.


constexpr void set_brackets( std::basic_string_view<CharT> opening,
                             std::basic_string_view<CharT> closing ) noexcept;

Assigns opening and closing to opening-bracket_ and closing-bracket_, respectively.


template< class ParseContext >
constexpr auto parse( ParseContext& ctx ) -> ParseContext::iterator;

Parses the format specifiers as a tuple-format-spec and stores the parsed specifiers in the current object.

If tuple-type or the n option is present, the values of opening-bracket, closing-bracket, and separator are modified as required.

For each element e in underlying_, calls e.parse(ctx) to parse an empty format-spec and, if e.set_debug_format() is a valid expression, calls e.set_debug_format().

Returns an iterator past the end of the tuple-format-spec.


template< class FormatContext >
auto format( /* see below */& elems, FormatContext& ctx ) const -> FormatContext::iterator;

The type of elems is

  • const /* pair-or-tuple */<Ts...>&, if (std::formattable<const Ts, CharT> && ...) is true,
  • /* pair-or-tuple */<Ts...>& otherwise.

Writes the following into ctx.out() as specified by tuple-format-spec, in order:

  • opening-bracket_,
  • for each index I in [0sizeof...(Ts)):
  • if I != 0, separator_,
  • the result of writing std::get<I>(elems) via std::get<I>(underlying_), and
  • closing-bracket_.

Returns an iterator past the end of the output range.

[edit] Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 3892 C++23 the formatting of nested tuples was incorrect corrected

[edit] See also

defines formatting rules for a given type
(class template) [edit]