< cpp‎ | utility‎ | format
Utilities library
General utilities
Relational operators (deprecated in C++20)
Integer comparison functions
Swap and type operations

Common vocabulary types

Elementary string conversions

Formatting library
Formatting functions
Formatting arguments
Format error
Defined in header <format>
(1) (since C++20)
(2) (since C++20)
(3) (since C++20)
(4) (since C++20)

Format arguments held by args according to the format string fmt, and return the result as a string. If present, loc is used for locale-specific formatting.


[edit] Parameters

fmt - string view representing the format string. The format string consists of
  • ordinary characters (except { and }), which are copied unchanged to the output,
  • escape sequences {{ and }}, which are replaced with { and } respectively in the output, and
  • replacement fields.

Each replacement field has the following format:

  • introductory { character;
  • (optional) arg-id, a non-negative number;
  • (optional) a colon (:) followed by a format specification;
  • final } character.

arg-id specifies the index of the argument in args whose value is to be used for formatting; if arg-id is omitted, the arguments are used in order. The arg-ids in a format string must all be present or all be omitted. Mixing manual and automatic indexing is an error.

The format specification is defined by the std::formatter specialization for the corresponding argument.

  • For basic types and standard string types, the format specification is interpreted as standard format specification.
  • For chrono types, the format specification is interpreted as chrono format specification.
  • For other formattable types, the format specification is determined by user-defined formatter specializations.
args - arguments to be formatted
loc - std::locale used for locale-specific formatting

[edit] Return value

A string object holding the formatted result.

[edit] Exceptions

Throws std::format_error if fmt is not a valid format string for the provided arguments, or std::bad_alloc on allocation failure. Also propagates any exception thrown by formatter or iterator operations.

[edit] Example

[edit] See also