< cpp‎ | utility‎ | functional
Function objects
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Function invocation
Identity function object
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Old binders and adaptors
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Defined in header <functional>
template <class F, class... Args>
/*unspecified*/ bind_front( F&& f, Args&&... args );
(since C++20)

The function template bind_front generates a forwarding call wrapper for f. Calling this wrapper is equivalent to invoking f with its first sizeof...(Args) parameters bound to args.

In other words, std::bind_front(f, bound_args...)(call_args...) is equivalent to std::invoke(f, bound_args..., call_args....).

The program is ill-formed if any of the following is not true:


[edit] Parameters

f - Callable object (function object, pointer to function, reference to function, pointer to member function, or pointer to data member) that will be bound to some arguments
args - list of the arguments to bind to the first sizeof...(Args) parameters of f
Type requirements
std::decay_t<F> and each type in std::decay_t<Args>... must meet the requirements of MoveConstructible.

[edit] Return value

A function object of type T that is unspecified, except that the types of objects returned by two calls to std::bind_front with the same arguments are the same.

The returned object (call wrapper) has the following properties:

std::bind_front return type

Member objects

The returned object behaves as if it holds a member object fd of type std::decay_t<F> constructed from std::forward<F>(f), and an std::tuple object tup constructed with std::make_tuple(std::forward<Args>(args)...) (this unwraps any std::reference_wrappers), except that the returned object's assignment behavior is unspecified and the names are for exposition only.


The return type of std::bind_front behaves as if its copy/move constructors perform a memberwise copy/move. It is CopyConstructible if all of its member objects (specified above) are CopyConstructible, and is MoveConstructible otherwise.

Member function operator()

Given an object G obtained from an earlier call to bind_front(f, args...), when a glvalue g designating G is invoked in a function call expression g(call_args...), an invocation of the stored object takes place, as if by

std::invoke(g.fd, std::get<Ns>(g.tup)..., call_args...)

, where

  • Ns is an integer pack 0, 1, ..., (sizeof...(Args) - 1)
  • g is an lvalue in the std::invoke expression if it is an lvalue in the call expression, and is an rvalue otherwise. Thus std::move(g)(call_args...) can move the bound arguments into the call, where g(call_args...) would copy.

The behavior is undefined if g has volatile-qualified type.

The member operator() is noexcept if the std::invoke expression it calls is noexcept (in other words, it preserves the exception specification of the underlying call operator)

[edit] Exceptions

Only throws if construction of stored function object or any of the bound arguments throws.

[edit] Notes

This function is intended to replace std::bind. Unlike std::bind, it does not support arbitrary argument rearrangement and has no special treatment for nested bind-expressions. On the other hand, it pays attention to the value category of the call wrapper object and propagates exception specification of the underlying call operator.

As described in std::invoke, when invoking a pointer to non-static member function or pointer to non-static data member, the first argument has to be a reference or pointer (including, possibly, smart pointer such as std::shared_ptr and std::unique_ptr) to an object whose member will be accessed.

The arguments to std::bind_front are copied or moved, and are never passed by reference unless wrapped in std::ref or std::cref.

[edit] Example

[edit] See also

binds one or more arguments to a function object
(function template) [edit]
creates a function object out of a pointer to a member
(function template) [edit]