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std::function<R(Args...)>::function

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | utility‎ | functional‎ | function
 
 
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function() noexcept;
(1) (since C++11)
function( std::nullptr_t ) noexcept;
(2) (since C++11)
function( const function& other );
(3) (since C++11)
(4)
function( function&& other );
(since C++11)
(until C++20)
function( function&& other ) noexcept;
(since C++20)
template< class F >
function( F&& f );
(5) (since C++11)
template< class Alloc >
function( std::allocator_arg_t, const Alloc& alloc ) noexcept;
(6) (since C++11)
(removed in C++17)
template< class Alloc >

function( std::allocator_arg_t, const Alloc& alloc,

          std::nullptr_t ) noexcept;
(7) (since C++11)
(removed in C++17)
template< class Alloc >

function( std::allocator_arg_t, const Alloc& alloc,

          const function& other );
(8) (since C++11)
(removed in C++17)
template< class Alloc >

function( std::allocator_arg_t, const Alloc& alloc,

          function&& other );
(9) (since C++11)
(removed in C++17)
template< class F, class Alloc >
function( std::allocator_arg_t, const Alloc& alloc, F f );
(10) (since C++11)
(removed in C++17)

Constructs a std::function from a variety of sources.

1-2) Creates an empty function.
3-4) Copies (3) or moves (4) the target of other to the target of *this. If other is empty, *this will be empty after the call too. For (4), other is in a valid but unspecified state after the call.
5) Initializes the target with std::forward<F>(f). The target is of type std::decay<F>::type. If f is a null pointer to function, a null pointer to member, or an empty value of some std::function specialization, *this will be empty after the call. This constructor does not participate in overload resolution unless the target type is not same as function, and its lvalue is Callable for argument types Args... and return type R. The program is ill-formed if the target type is not copy-constructible or initialization of the target is ill-formed.
6-10) Same as (1-5) except that alloc is used to allocate memory for any internal data structures that the function might use.

When the target is a function pointer or a std::reference_wrapper, small object optimization is guaranteed, that is, these targets are always directly stored inside the std::function object, no dynamic allocation takes place. Other large objects may be constructed in dynamic allocated storage and accessed by the std::function object through a pointer.

Contents

[edit] Parameters

other - the function object used to initialize *this
f - a callable object used to initialize *this
alloc - an Allocator used for internal memory allocation
Type requirements
-
std::decay<F>::type must meet the requirements of Callable and CopyConstructible.
-
Alloc must meet the requirements of Allocator.

[edit] Exceptions

3,8,9) Does not throw if other's target is a function pointer or a std::reference_wrapper, otherwise may throw std::bad_alloc or any exception thrown by the constructor used to copy or move the stored callable object.
4) Does not throw if other's target is a function pointer or a std::reference_wrapper, otherwise may throw std::bad_alloc or any exception thrown by the constructor used to copy or move the stored callable object.
(until C++20)
5,10) Does not throw if f is a function pointer or a std::reference_wrapper, otherwise may throw std::bad_alloc or any exception thrown by the copy constructor of the stored callable object.

[edit] Notes

std::function's allocator support was poorly specified and inconsistently implemented. Some implementations do not provide overloads (6-10) at all, some provide the overloads but ignore the supplied allocator argument, and some provide the overloads and use the supplied allocator for construction but not when the std::function is reassigned. As a result, allocator support was removed in C++17.

[edit] Example

[edit] Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 2132 C++11 constructor taking a Callable object might be ambiguous constrained
LWG 2774 C++11 constructor taking a Callable performed an additional move eliminated