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std::variant<Types...>::operator=

From cppreference.com
< cpp‎ | utility‎ | variant
 
 
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constexpr variant& operator=( const variant& rhs );
(1) (since C++17)
constexpr variant& operator=( variant&& rhs ) noexcept(/* see below */);
(2) (since C++17)
template< class T >
variant& operator=( T&& t ) noexcept(/* see below */);
(3) (since C++17)

Assigns a new value to an existing variant object.

1) Copy-assignment:
  • If both *this and rhs are valueless by exception, does nothing.
  • Otherwise, if rhs is valueless, but *this is not, destroys the value contained in *this and makes it valueless.
  • Otherwise, if rhs holds the same alternative as *this, assigns the value contained in rhs to the value contained in *this. If an exception is thrown, *this does not become valueless: the value depends on the exception safety guarantee of the alternative's copy assignment.
  • Otherwise, if the alternative held by rhs is either nothrow copy constructible or not nothrow move constructible (as determined by std::is_nothrow_copy_constructible and std::is_nothrow_move_constructible, respectively), equivalent to this->emplace<rhs.index()>(get<rhs.index()>(rhs)).
  • Otherwise, equivalent to this->operator=(variant(rhs)). Note that *this may become valueless_by_exception as described in (2).
This overload is defined as deleted unless std::is_copy_constructible_v<T_i> and std::is_copy_assignable_v<T_i> are both true for all T_i in Types.... This overload is trivial if std::is_trivially_copy_constructible_v<T_i>,std::is_trivially_copy_assignable_v<T_i> and std::is_trivially_destructible_v<T_i> are all true for all T_i in Types....
2) Move-assignment:
  • If both *this and rhs are valueless by exception, does nothing
  • Otherwise, if rhs is valueless, but *this is not, destroys the value contained in *this and makes it valueless
  • Otherwise, if rhs holds the same alternative as *this, assigns std::get<j>(std::move(rhs)) to the value contained in *this, with j being index(). If an exception is thrown, *this does not become valueless: the value depends on the exception safety guarantee of the alternative's move assignment.
  • Otherwise (if rhs and *this hold different alternatives), equivalent to this->emplace<rhs.index()>(get<rhs.index()>(std::move(rhs))). If an exception is thrown by T_i's move constructor, *this becomes valueless_by_exception.
This overload only participates in overload resolution if std::is_move_constructible_v<T_i> and std::is_move_assignable_v<T_i> are both true for all T_i in Types.... This overload is trivial if std::is_trivially_move_constructible_v<T_i>, std::is_trivially_move_assignable_v<T_i>, and std::is_trivially_destructible_v<T_i> are all true for all T_i in Types....
3) Converting assignment.
  • Determines the alternative type T_j that would be selected by overload resolution for the expression F(std::forward<T>(t)) if there was an overload of imaginary function F(T_i) for every T_i from Types... in scope at the same time, except that:
  • An overload F(T_i) is only considered if the declaration T_i x[] = { std::forward<T>(t) }; is valid for some invented variable x;
  • If T_i is (possibly cv-qualified) bool, F(T_i) is only considered if std:remove_cvref_t<T> is also bool.
This overload only participates in overload resolution if std::decay_t<T> (until C++20)std::remove_cvref_t<T> (since C++20) is not the same type as variant and std::is_assignable_v<T_j&, T> is true and std::is_constructible_v<T_j, T> is true and the expression F(std::forward<T>(t)) (with F being the above-mentioned set of imaginary functions) is well formed.
std::variant<string> v1;
v1 = "abc"; // OK
std::variant<std::string, std::string> v2;
v2 = "abc"; // Error
std::variant <std::string, bool> v3;
v3 = "abc"; // OK, chooses string; bool is not a candidate
std::variant<float, long, double> v4; //holds float
v4 = 0; // OK, holds long; float and double are not candidates

Contents

[edit] Parameters

rhs - another variant
t - a value convertible to one of the variant's alternatives

[edit] Return value

*this

[edit] Exceptions

1) May throw any exception thrown by assignment and copy/move initialization of any alternative
2)
noexcept specification:  
3)
noexcept specification:  

[edit] Example

#include <iomanip>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <type_traits>
#include <variant>
 
std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& os, std::variant<int, std::string> const& va)
{
    os << ": { ";
 
    std::visit([&](auto&& arg) {
        using T = std::decay_t<decltype(arg)>;
        if constexpr (std::is_same_v<T, int>)
            os << arg;
        else if constexpr (std::is_same_v<T, std::string>)
            os << std::quoted(arg);
    }, va);
 
    return os << " };\n";
}
 
int main()
{
    std::variant<int, std::string> a{2017}, b{"CppCon"};
    std::cout << "a" << a << "b" << b << '\n';
 
    std::cout << "(1) operator=( const variant& rhs )\n";
    a = b; 
    std::cout << "a" << a << "b" << b << '\n';
 
    std::cout << "(2) operator=( variant&& rhs )\n";
    a = std::move(b); 
    std::cout << "a" << a << "b" << b << '\n';
 
    std::cout << "(3) operator=( T&& t ), where T is int\n";
    a = 2019; 
    std::cout << "a" << a << '\n';
 
    std::cout << "(3) operator=( T&& t ), where T is std::string\n";
    std::string s{"CppNow"};
    std::cout << "s: " << std::quoted(s) << '\n';
    a = std::move(s);
    std::cout << "a" << a << "s: " << std::quoted(s) << '\n';
}

Possible output:

a: { 2017 };
b: { "CppCon" };
 
(1) operator=( const variant& rhs )
a: { "CppCon" };
b: { "CppCon" };
 
(2) operator=( variant&& rhs )
a: { "CppCon" };
b: { "" };
 
(3) operator=( T&& t ), where T is int
a: { 2019 };
 
(3) operator=( T&& t ), where T is std::string
s: "CppNow"
a: { "CppNow" };
s: ""

[edit] Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 3024 C++17 copy assignment operator doesn't participate in overload resolution if any member type is not copyable defined as deleted instead
P0602R4 C++17 copy/move assignment may not be trivial even if underlying operations are trivial required to propagate triviality
P0608R3 C++17 converting assignment blindly assembles an overload set, leading to unintended conversions narrowing and boolean conversions not considered

[edit] See also

constructs a value in the variant, in place
(public member function) [edit]